ADUMBRATIO LEXICI ANGLICO-LATINI

a Davide Morgan, beatae memoriae, incohati

et nunc a Patricio Owens curati

 

 

“Nova verba non sine quodam periculo fingere”

Quintilianus, Inst. Orat. 1, 5, 71

 

symbols and abbreviations

 

+  medieval word (first found 700-1400)

*  modern word (first found since 1400)

Parentheses surrounding the above two symbols indicate that the word itself is ancient, but the meaning is first found in the medieval or modern period .  Certainty about the first appearance of post-ancient Latin words is impossible; my indications are based on consultation of certain dictionaries (see preface) and a number of primary sources.

 

Anc. Gr.  Ancient Greek

Byz. Gr.  Byzantine Greek

eccl.  ecclesiastical

EL  European languages

Mod. Gr.  Modern Greek

ML  medieval Latin

NL  Neo-Latin (of Latin from the Renaissance on)

s.v.  sub voce (under the entry)

v.  vel (or)

WC  WorldCat database

 

 

sources cited

 

Acosta, José de.  De novi orbis natura.  In Americae nona et postrema pars.  Ed. and trans. Theodor de Bry.  Frankfurt, 1602.

Act. Lips.  – Acta eruditorum anno 1683 publicata.  Leipzig, 1683.

Adam, Melchior.  Decades duae continentes vitas theologorum exterorum principum.  Frankfurt, 1653.

Ainsworth, Robert.  Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Compendiarius, or A Compendious Dictionary of the Latin Tongue.  3rd ed.  London, 1751.

Alb. -- Albert, Sigrides, Imaginum Vocabularium Latinum (Societas Latina: Saarbrücken, 1998)

Albert Imag. -- Albert, Sigrides.  Imaginum vocabularium Latinum.  Saarbrücken, Societas Latina, 1998.

Aldrovandi, Ulisse, Musaeum metallicum (Bologna, 1648)

Alexandre Plin. - (find by searching 1832 Alexandre) change name (Alexandre only does first vol.) - add note that he compiles notes and commentary from Jean Hardouin (Harduinus, 1646-1729) (chiefly), Gronovius, Rezzonicus, Broterius, Dalecampius (Jacques Dalechamps, 1513-1588), Durandus, Falconetus, Pintianus, Salmasius, others. (Sometimes source cannot be identified.)

Alexandre, Charles, ed.  Caii Plinii Secundi Historiae naturales libri XXXVII.  Paris, 1827-32.

Alpini, Propsero (1553-1617).  De medicina Aegyptiorum.  Venice, 1591.

Alpini, Propsero (1553-1617).  De plantis Aegypti.  Leiden, 1735.  Originally published in 1592.

Alpinus, Prosper, De medicina Aegyptiorum (Venice 1591)

Amoen . acad. -- Amoenitates Academicae seu dissertationes variae physicae, medicae, botanicae, ed. Christian Schreber (Erlangen, 1787-1790)

André, Anatomie -- Jacques André, Le Vocabulaire latin de l'anatomie (Paris: Belles Lettres, 1991)

André, Botanique -- Jacques André, Lexique des terms de botanique en latin (Paris: Klincksieck, 1956)

André, Cuisine -- Jacques André, L'Alimentation et la cuisine à Rome (Paris: Belles Lettres, 1981)

André, Plantes -- Jacques André, Les Noms des plantes dans la Rome antique (Paris: Belles Lettres, 1985)

Anghiera, Pietro Martire d', Decades de orbe novo

Ann . Acad. Leod. 1824 -- Annales Academiae Leodiensis A. MDCCCXXII-MDCCCXXIII (Liège, 1824)

Ann . Acad. Lugd1871-- Annales academici Lugduni-Batavorum MDCCCLXVI-MDCCCLXVII.  Leiden, 1871.

Ann . Acad. Rheno-Tr. -- Annales Academiae Rheno-Trajectinae Ann.  Published at Utrecht, biennially from 1815 to 1837.

Annales Antverpienses .  Daniel von Papenbroeck, ed.  Antwerp, 1845-48.

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Bentley, Richard.  Q. Horatius Flaccus ex recensione ... Richardi Bentlei.  Berlin, 1869.

Bergler, Stephan, trans. and ed.  Aristophanis comoediae undecim.  Leiden, 1760.

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Berry, 1814 --  Berry, William, The history of ... Guernsey, from the remotest period of antiquity to the year 1814

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Boerhaave, Herman.  Elementa chemiae.  Leiden, 1732.

Bondelmontius, Christophorus.  Liber insularum Archipelagi.  G. R. L. de Sinner, ed.  Leipzig, 1824.  Original text composed 15th c.

Bonon . Acad. -- De Bononiensi scientiarum et artium Instituto atque Academia commentarii (1731)

Boon Mesch, A. H. van der.  Disputatio geologica de incendiis montium igni ardentium insulae Iavae, eorumdemque lapidibus.  Leiden, 1826.

Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso, 1608-1679.  De motu animalium pars prima.  Leiden, 1710.  First published 1680.

Bostock, John, and H. T. Riley, translators and annotators.  The Natural History of Pliny.  London, 1865.  6 vols.

Brown, Robert.  Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae.  London, 1810.

Brun, Dictionnaire des commençans, françois et latin (Lyon 1809)

Burton, Robert, The Anatomy of Melancholy (London, 1883)

C.I.C. -- Codex Iuris Canonici (1911)

Calepino, Ambrogio (1450-1510).  Dictionarium Latinum.  [Undated, apparently 18th c.]  The original edition was published at Regio in 1502.

Callebat, Louis and Philippe Fleury, Dictionnaire des termes technique du De architectura de Vitruve (Hildesheim, Olms-Weidmann, 1995)

Castelli, Bartolomeo and others.  Lexicon medicum Graeco-Latinum.  Leipzig, 1713.  Originally published in 1598, but supplemented with much new material by later editors.

Cedrenus, Georgius (11th c.).  Historiarum compendium.  Ed. Immanuel Bekker.  Bonn, 1839.

CGL  -- Corpus glossariorum Latinorum.  Georg Goetz, ed.  Leipzig: Teubner, 1888-1923.

Christen, Christophorus, Opium historice, chemice atque pharmacologice investigatum (Vienna, 1820)

CIL -- Corpus inscriptionum latinarum.

Circoscrizioni -- Circoscrizioni Ecclesiastiche, Nomi Latini De Curia; Aggiornati al 30 1998. Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Citta del Vaticano, 1998

Clauser, Konrad (c.1520-1611), trans.  Laonicus Chalcondyles (or Chalcocondylas) (1423-1490).  Historiararum de origine ac rebus gestis Turcarum libri decem.  PG 159, 9-554.  Paris: Migne, 1866.  The translation was originally published in 1650.

Coles, A Dictionary, English-Latin and Latin-English (1679)

Combefis, François (Franciscus Combefisius), trans. Constantinus Porphyrogenitus.  De vita et rebus gestis avi sui Basilii Macedonis.  In PG 109, 225-368.  Combefis (1605-1679), a French Dominican, did ground-breaking work in Greek patrology.

Comm . Petr. -- Novi commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae.  Saint Petersburg, 1748-1775.

Corominas, Joan, Diccionario crítico etimológico de la lengua castellana (Bern: Editorial Francke, 1954)

Cuniliati, Fulgentius.  Universae theologiae moralis accurata complexio.  Madrid, 1794.

Damian, Peter.  In PL vols. 144-45.

Dante Alaghieri, cited from Le Opere di Dante: testo critico della Società Dantesca italiana (Florence: R. Bemporad, 1921)  |  Vulg. El.  De Vulgari Eloquentia  |  Monarchia  |  Aqua  Quaestio de Aqua et Terra  |  Ep.  Epistolae

Daremberg, Charles, and Edmond Saglio.  Dictionnaire des antiquités grecques et romaines.  Paris: Hachette, 1900.

Decahors, E., Dictionnaire français-latin (Paris: Hatier,1947)

Der Neue Pauly: Enzyklopädie der Antike .  Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider, eds.  Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1996-.

Descartes, René.  Meditationes de prima philosophia.  Paris, 1641.  Cited by standard book and chapter numbers.

Desfontaines , René, Flora Atlantica sive historia plantarum quae in Atlante, agro Tunetano et Algeriense crescunt (Paris, 1798).

Dindorf, Wilhelm, editor and translator.  Pausanias.  Descriptio Graeciae.  Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1845.

Divertissemens de Versailles donnés par le roi à toute sa cour au retour de la conquête de la Franche-Comté  (Paris, 1676).  The often-reproduced illustrations, by the architect and engraver Le Pautre, include captions in French and Latin.

Doederlein, Ludwig, Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien (Leipzig 1829)

Does, Theodor van der (Theodorus Dousa), trans.  Georgius Acropolita (1217-1282).  Annales.  Bonn, 1836.  The edition and translation of Does (1580-1663) was first published in 1614.

Dübner, Friedrich, editor and translator.  Theophrasti Characteres, Marci Antonini Commentarii, Epicteti Dissertationes.  Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1840.

Ducange Comn. -- Ducange, Charles du Fresne.  In Annae Comnenae Caesarissae Alexiadem notae historicae et philologicae.  Republished in:  Schopen, Ludwig, ed.  Annae Comnenae Alexiadis libri XV.  Vol. 2, pp. 417 et seq.  In Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantiae.  Bonn, 1878.

Ducange Graec. -- Ducange, Charles du Fresne.  Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae Graecitatis.  Lyon, 1688.  Reprint:  Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1958.

Ducange, Charles du Fresne, trans.  Chronicon paschale.  Ludwig August Dindorf, ed.  Bonn, 1832.  In the series Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae.  Ducange's translation was first published in 1688.

Ducange, Charles du Fresne, translator and annotator.  Ioannes Cinnamus (12th c.).  Epitome rerum ab Ioanne et Alexio Comnenis gestarum.  Bonn, 1836.  The translation was first published in 1670.

Ducange, Charles, trans.  Joannes Cinnamus.  Historiarium libri septem.  In PG 133, 309-678.

Ducrue, P. Benno Franciscus, Relatio expulsionis Societatis Iesu ex provinciae Mexicana, et maxime e California anno 1767, cum aliis scitu dignis notitiis, pp. 217-267, in Christoph Gottlieb von Murr, Journal zur Kunstgeschichte und zur allgemeinen Litteratur, zwölfter Theil (Nürnberg, 1784)

Dudo Decanus Sancti Quintini.  De moribus et actis primorum Northmanniae ducum.  In  PL 141, 607-766.

Dunglison, Robley, Medical Lexicon: A Dictionary of Medical Science (Philadelphia, 1866)

Dunglison, Robley.  A Dictionary of Medical Science.  London, 1876.

Dunglison, Robley.  A Dictionary of Medical Science.  Philadelphia, 1874.

Duval, Jacques.  Traité des hermaphrodites, parties génitales, accouchements des femmes, etc.  Paris: Isidore Liseux, 1880.  Original edition Rouen, 1612.  The work is principally in French; but a few passages – those potentially most shocking – are in Latin.

EB  -- Encyclopedia Britannica

Egger N.L. -- Egger, Karl  Lexicon Nominum Locorum

Eichenseer Tabulae -- Eichenseer, C.  Latinitas viva: tabulae imagineae numero nonaginta.  Saarbrücken, Societas Latina, 1984.

Erasmus Epist. -- Erasmus, Desiderius.  Opus epistolarum Desiderii Erasmi Roterodami.  Ed. P. S. Allen.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-1958.

Erasmus, cited from North Holland ed. |  Coll.  Colloquia Familiaria

Est, Willem van, In omnes Pauli epistolas, item in catholicas commentarii, ed. Holzhammer (Mainz, 1858-59)

Estré, I. G. F.  Horatiana prosopographeia.  Amsterdam, 1846.

Fabre, Pierre Jean.  Myrothecium spagyricum sive pharmacopoea chymica.  Toulouse, 1628.

Falloppius, Gabriel, De morbo Gallico (Venice 1574)

Forcellini, Egidio.  Totius latinitatis lexicon.  Padua, 1771.

Fracastoro, Girolamo (1478-1553). Opera omnia.  Venice, 1584.  The Opera omnia were first published in 1553.

Fraser, Angus.  The Gypsies.  Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

Frisius, Andreas (17th-c. Dutch printer).  Prefatory letters.  In Girolamo Mercuriale (Hieronymus Mercurialis).  De arte gymnastica.  Amsterdam, 1672.  I have numbered the pages of the prefatory letters (unnumbered in the text) i through vi.

Fuss, Jean Dominique, trans.  Ioannes Laurentius Lydus.  [Opera.]  Bonn, 1837.  Lydus was a sixth-century government official and antiquarian living in Constantinople, a contemporary of Justinian.

Gaffiot, Félix, Dictionnaire Latin-Français (Paris: Hachette, 1934)

Gasparri, Petrus Cardinalis Catechismus Catholicus quarta edition (Sede Apostolica, 1931)

Gauss, Carl Friedrich, Werke, vols. 4-6 (Göttingen, 1863): Theoria combinationis observationum erroribus minimis obnoxiae. Pars prior 1821 Febr. 15, Bd. 4;  Principia generalia theoriae figurae fluidorum in statu aequilibrii, 1829 Sept., Bd. 5, pp. 31-80; Methodus peculiaris elevationem poli determinandi, Werke, Bd. 6, pp. 37-50; Observationes cometae secundi a. 1813 in observatorio Grottingensi factae, adjectis nonnullis adnotationibus circa calculum orbitarum parabolicarum, Werke, Bd. 6, pp. 25-36.

Gentian, Hervet, trans.  Theodore Balasmon (12th c.).  Commentaria in canones sanctorum apostolorum, conciliorum, et in epistolas canonicas sanctorum Patrum.  PG, vol. 137.  Paris: Migne, 1865.  The translation was first published in 1561.  (The Patrologia editor does not identify expressly the translator, mentioning only that he has revised an earlier Latin translation; Gentian's, as far as I can determine, was the only prior translation.)

Georges, Karl Ernst, Ausführliches Lateinisch-Deutches und Deutsch-Lateinisches Handwörterbuch (Leipzig, 1882)

Gerard of Cremona (also known as Gerard of Sabionetta or Sabloneta, 13th c.), translator.  Avicenna.  Liber canonis medicinae cum castigationibus Andreae Bellunensis.  Venice, 1527. Facsimile reprint:  Brussels: Éditions culture et civilisation, 1971. 

Gerard, John, Catalogus arborum, fruticum ac plantarum tam indigenarum quam exoticarum (London, 1599)

Gesner, Johann Matthias, translator.  Luciani Samosatensis opera.  Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1867.  The translations through page 137 are by Tiberius Hemsterhuis; the rest by Gesner (1691-1761), the renowned classical scholar, Weimar librarian, and friend of Johann Sebastian Bach.  The original edition containing Hemsterhuis' and Gesner's translations was published in 1743.

Gevaerts, Jan Caspar (Casperius Gevartius), text.  Peter Paul Rubens, illustrations.  Pompa introitus honori serenissimi principis Ferdinandi Austriaci Hispaniarum infantis.  Antwerp, 1642. Facsimile edition:  New York: Benjamin Bloom, 1971.  An extraordinarily sumptuous, lavishly illustrated festival book.  The Flemish humanist Gevaerts (1593-1666) worked with Rubens, his close friend, in framing conceptually the elaborate iconography of the archduke Ferdinand's "joyous entry"; Rubens made the drawings from which the book's engravings were executed.

Gildemeister, Johann.  Scriptorum Arabam de rebus Indicis loci et opuscula inedita.  Bonn, 1838.

Giraldus Cambrensis.  Opera.  Ed. J. S. Brewer.  London, 1861

Gossrau, Gottfried Wilhelm, ed.  Publii Virgilii Maronis Aeneis.  Quedlinburg and Leipzig, 1846.

Graesse, J. G. Th., Orbis Latinus (Berlin: Richard Carl Schmidt and Co., 1909)

Gramm Lat. -- Grammatici Latini.  Ed. Kiel.

Grellmann, Heinrich Moritz Gottlieb.  Historischer Versuch über die Zigeuner.  Göttingen, 1787.

Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm, and others.  Deutsches Wörterbuch.  Leipzig, 1854-1960.

Grosse, Adalbert, De cannabi Indica (Berlin, 1846)

Haas, Johann Gottfried, Vollständiges lateinisch-deutsches und deutsch-lateinisches Handwörterbuch (Ronneburg u. Leipzig 1808)

Hagen, Friedrich Heinrich von der.  Monumenta medii aevi plerumque inedita, Graeca, Latina, Itala, Franco-gallica, Palaeogermanica et Islandica: Specimen primum.  Wrocław, 1821.

Hahn, Johannes David.  Oratio de usu venenorum in medecina.  Utrecht, 1773.

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Hase, Alexandre, prefaces and annotations in Académie des inscriptions, Recueil des historiens des croisades: Historiens grecs, vol. 1 (Paris, 1875).  Page citations refer to Part I of the volume, unless otherwise noted.

Hase, Charles Benoît.  Commentarius de Ioanne Lydo.  Ioannes Laurentius Lydus.  [Opera.]  Bonn, 1837.

Hawley, Richard Maddock.  Morborum definitiones.  Edinburg, 1827.

Heinichen, Friedrich Adolph, Lehrbuch der Theorie des lateinischen Stils (Leipzig 1842)

Helfer -- Helfer, Christian, Lexicon auxiliare (Saarbrücken: Societas Latina, 1991)

Herwerden, H. van.  "Ad comicos Graecos."  Mnemosyne: Bibliotheca philologica Batava.  Nova series, vol. 10, pp. 67-95.  Leiden, 1882.

Hessler, Franciscus, tr., Suŝrutas Áyurvédas, id est medicinae systema a venerabile D'hanvantare demonstratum (Erlangen, 1844)

Hilgers, Werner, Lateinische Gefässnamen: Bezeichnungen Funktion und Form römischer Gefässe nach den antiken Schriftquellen (Düsseldorf: Rheinland-Verlag, 1969)

Hobson-Jobson  -- Yule, Henry, Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases (London: J. Murray, 1903)

Hoeven, Cornelis Pruys van der.  De historia medicinae.  Leiden, 1842.

Hoeven, Cornelis Pruys van der.  Historia morborum.  Leiden, 1845.

Hoeven, Cornelis Pruys van der.  Historia morborum.  Leiden, 1846.

Hoeven, J. van der.  Philosophia zoologica.  Leiden, 1864.

Hofmann, Johann Jacob, Lexicon universale (Leiden, 1698)

Holste, Lukas (Lucas Holstenius).  Journal de Voyage d'Holstenius à Insprück: Ephemeris itineris Oenipontani anno Christi 1655.  In Revue de langues romanes.  4ème série, tome 5ème. Montpellier, 1891.  pp. 535-547.

Hutten, Ulrich von (1488-1523), and others.  Epistolae obscurorum virorum.  Leipzig: Teubner, 1869. 

Ideler, Julius Ludwig.  Meteorologia veterum Graecorum et Romanorum.  Berlin, 1832.

Index  -- Index librorum prohibitorum (Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1958)

Jamieson, John.  An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language.  Edinburgh, 1808.

John Bostock and Henry Riley, translators.  The Natural History of Pliny.  London, 1855.

Kant, Immanuel.  Kants Werke.  Band I.  Georg Reimer: Berlin, 1910.

Katterfeld, T., "De Promothea ternione Aeschyli," in Neue Jahrbücher für Philologie und Paedagogik, Band XIX, Heft 1 (Leipzig, 1853)

Kepler, Johannes.  Opera omnia.  Ed. Ch. Frisch.  Frankfurt: 1858-1871.

Kiel, Cornelis.  Etymologicum Teutonicae linguae.  Antwerp, 1599.

Kircher, Athanasius and Johann Stephan Kestler.  Physiologia Kircheriana experimentalis.  Amsterdam, 1680.  Kestler, who was Kircher's student assistant, compiled this work from descriptions of experiments, concoctions, and stunts found througout the works of the irrepressible polymath.

Kircher, Athanasius, Cornucopiae linguae Latinae (1796)

Kircher, Athanasius, Mundus subterraneus (Amdsterdam, 1665)

Koenig, Georg Ludwig, editor and annotator.  D. Junii Juvenalis sexdecim satirae.  Paris, 1825.  In series Bibliotheca classica

Kopp, Ulricus Fridericus, Palaeographia critica (Mannheim, 1817-29)

Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis (Stuttgart, 1907)

Krebs, Antibarbarus

Lambeck, Peter (Petrus Lambecius), trans.  Georgius Codinus.  [Various works.]  In PG 157, 429-738.  Lambeck (1628-1680) was a renowned scholar and court historian to the Austrian emperor. His edition and translation of Codinus was first published in 1655.

Lapide, Cornelius a.  Commentaria in Scripturam Sacram.  Paris, 1866-74.

Leges Cracov . -- Leges, privilegia et statuta civitatis Cracoviensis (1507-1795).  Franciscus Piekosinski, ed.  Kraków, 1885.

Leibniz Phil. -- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Philosophische Schriften (Berlin, 1880)

Leibniz Sämt. -- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Sämtlliche Schriften und Brief (Darmstadt, 1926-)

Leibniz Werke -- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gesammelte Werke (Halle, 1849-1860)

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, Adnotatio de quibusdam ludis, in Miscellanea Berolinensia ad incrementum scientarum, vol. 1 (1710)

Leibniz.  Gesammelte Werke.  Georg Heinrich Pertz, ed.  Hannover, 1845.

Lemaire, Nicolas Eloi, ed.  Quinti Horatii Flacci quae exstant omnia opera.  Paris, 1829-1831.  Bibliotheca classica Latina. 

Léry, Jean, Historia navigationis in Brasiliam ... a Ioanne Lerio Burgundo gallice scripta, nunc vero primum Latinitate donata (Geneva, 1586)

Lev.  --  Levine, Latin Dictionary (1967)

Linacre, Thomas, trans.  Galenus.  De sanitate tuendâ libri sex.  In Cl. Galeni Pergameni Asiani excellentissimi semper post unicum Hippocratem medici ab omnibus habiti opera.  Basil: Froben, 1538-1549.  Vol. 2, pp. 205-352.

Linné.  Species plantarum.  Vienna, 1764.

LLI  -- Lexicon latinitatis medii aevi Iugoslaviae.  Zagreb: Academia scientiarum et artium Slavorum Meridionalium, 1969-1978.

LLN  -- Lexicon latinitatis Nederlandicae medii aevi.  Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970-2005.

Locke, John, Works (London, 1823)

LRL -- Lexicon Recentioris Latinitatis (Vatican)

LS -- Lewis and Short

Lüders, Adolph Friedrich.  Vacciolarum nativarum historia.  Kiel, 1826.

Luther, Martin, Werke (Weimar, 1883-)

Lyttleton, George William.  Translations.  London, 1863.

Maffeius, Iohannes Petrus, S.J., Historiarum Indicarum libri XVI (Lyon, 1589)

Magri, Domenico.  Hierolexicon sive sacrum dictionarium.  Rome, 1677.

Maiansius, Gregorius, ed., Vives, Juan Luis, Opera omnia (Valentiae, 1782), vol. 1

Manutius, Paulus.  Epistulae selectae.  Leipzig: Teubner, 1892.

Marco Polo A.  "Old Latin version" (so called by Yule 1, 90), MSS no. 3195 of the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris.  Published in:  Société de géographie.  Recueuil des voyages et de mémoires.  Vol. 1: Voyages de Marco Polo.  Paris, 1824.  "Peregrinatio Marci Pauli."  Pp. 299-502.  This is one of a handful of versions believed closest to the lost original, which had probably been dictated by Marco to a prison cellmate.  It is undoubtedly among the oldest extant versions of the work (see Yule 1, 90; 1, 95).

Marco Polo B.  Marcus Paulus de Venecia de consuetudinibus et conditionibus orientalium regionum.  Trans. Francesco Pipino.  Gouda, 1483.  I consulted a facsimile of Christopher Columbus' personally annotated copy of this incunabulum:  Libro de las maravillas del mundo: facsímil del que, usado por Cristóbal Colón, se encuentra depositado en la Biblioteca Capitular y Colombina del Cabildo Catedral de Sevilla.  Madrid: Testimonio, 1986.  (Citations are to book and chapter number; the edition has no page numbers.)  It was in this Latin version, executed during Marco's lifetime (probably in 1315) by the Franciscan friar and chronicler Francesco Pipino – and in versions derived from it – that the work was most often read up to the 19th century (see Yule I. 95).  On Pipino, see Johann Albert Fabricius, Bibliotheca latina mediae et infimae aetatis (Florence, 1858), 2, 602: "Franciscus Pipinus Bononiensis, ordinis Praedicatorum, clarus circa annum 1315, non modo Marci Pauli Veneti Iter orientale ... Latine vertit ex Italico, sed et ipse scripsit De locis terrae sancatae a se visitatis anno 1320."

Marcus Empiricus, De Medicamentis, ed. Georgius Helmreich (Teubner: Leipzig, 1889)

Massoch, Stephen.  Practical Teacher of the Latin Language.  Baltimore, 1866.

Matthiolus, Petrus Andreas.  Epistolarum medicinalium libri quinque.  Lyon, 1564.

Mattioli, Pietro Andrea, Compendium de plantis omnibus (Venice, 1571)

Melanchthon, Philip (1497-1560).  Opera quae supersunt omnia.  Heinrich Ernst Bindseil and Karl Gottlieb Bretschneider, eds.  Halle, 1834-1860.  In collection Corpus reformatorum.

Mém . Turin -- Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences de Turin.  Turin, 1786-1801.

Menge -- Menge-Güthling, Enzyklopädisches Wörterbuch (1918)

Mercator, Gerhard and Rumold Mercator, Atlas sive cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mundi (1595).  The volumes are not paginated; references are to the names of sections of the works or individual maps.

Mercuriale, Girolamo (Hieronymus Mercurialis).  De arte gymnastica.  Amsterdam, 1672.  Facsimile reprint:  New York: Scholar Press, 1980.  Original edition: Venice, 1569.  The celebrated illustrations are by the Italian artist and classicist Pirro Ligorio (1510-1583).

Meurs, Johannes van (Johannes Meursius), translator and annotator.  Constantinus Porphyrogenitus.  De administrando imperio.  Bonn, 1840.  Original edition 1615.  Meurs (1579-1639) was a Dutch classical scholar, unfairly labeled a "pedant" by the haughty Joseph Justus Scaliger.

Meyer, Heinrich, ed., Cicero, Brutus (Halis, 1838)

MHG -- Monumenta Germaniae historica.

Milton, John.  The Works of John Milton.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1931-1938.

MLBS  -- Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources

MLWB  -- Mittellateinisches Wörterbuch.  Munich: Beck, 1959-.

Mogyoróssy, Árkád (Arcadius Avellanus).  Mysterium Arcae Boulé.  New York: Latin Press Printing, 1916.  Translation of Robert Louis Stevenson's Mystery of the Boulé Cabinet.

Møller, Jens (Janus Möller).  "De fide Eusebii Caesareensis in rebus Christianorum enarrandis."   Theologisk bibliothek 4 (1813), 129-303.  A journal published twice a year in Copenhagen, 1811-21.

Montfaucon, Bernard de, Palaeographica Graece, sive de ortu et progressu litterarum Graecarum (Paris, 1708)

Morelli, Cyriacus.  Fasti novi orbis.  Venice, 1776.

Muench, Aloisius Joseph, S.T.D. Excellentissimus, Synodus Diocesana Fargensis Prima Tomus I & II (Milwauchiae, 1941)

Muret, Marc Antoine (Marcus Antonius Muretus, 1526-1585).  Opera omnia.   Ed. David Ruhnken.  Leiden, 1789.

Newman, John Henry.  Dissertatiunculae quaedam critico-theologicae.  Rome, 1847.

Newton, Isaac.  Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica.  Ed. Thomas Le Seur.  Glasgow, 1822.  Original edition1687.

NGML  -- Novum glossarium mediae latinitatis.  Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1900-.

Noël, François-Joseph-Michel, Dictionnaire français-latin (1852)

Nonius Marcellus.  De compendiosa doctrina.  Ed. Wallace M. Lindsay.  Leipzig: Teubner, 1903.

Oberlin, Jeremias Jacob et al., eds.  C. Julii Caesaris opera omni ex editione Oberliniana cum notis et interpretatione in usum Delphini.  London, 1819.

Obrecht, Ulrich, translator.  Theophilus Kiessling, editor (touched up translation).  Iamblichus.  De vita Pythagorica.  Leipzig, 1815-16.  Obrecht's translation was originally published in 1707.

OED   -- Oxford English Dictionary

OLD   -- Oxford Latin Dictionary

Oribasius (320-400).  Oeuvres d'Oribase: texte grec, en grande partie inédit, collationné sur les manuscrits, traduit pour la première fois en français.  Eds. Charles Daremberg and Ulco Cats Bussemaker.  Paris, 1851.

Oribasius Lat. -- Oribasius Latinus.  Ed. Henning Mørland.  Oslo: A. W. Brøgger, 1940.  The Latin translation is believed to date to the 6th century.

Otto and Rahewin.  Gesta Friderici I imperatoris.  Ed. G. Waitz.  Hannover: Hahn, 1884.  In series Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum.

Pallas, Petrus, Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica (Petropoli, 1811)

Perrin, Yves.  "Turris Maecenatiana: une note d'histoire et de topographie."  Laotomus 55 (1996), 399-410.

Perugini, Angelus, Concordata vigentia (Rome, 1934)

Petrarch -- Francesco Petrarca, Prose (Riccardi: Milan, 1955)

Pharm . Austr. -- Pharmacopoea Nosocomiorum Civilium Argentinensium (Strasbourg, 1840)

Pharm . Bat. -- Pharmacopoea Batava (Milan, 1823-24)

Pharm . Helv. [1872] -- Pharmacopoea Helvetica (Bern, 1907)

Pharm . Helv. [1907] -- Pharmacopoea Helvetica (Scaphusiae, 1872)  [legi praefationem tantum]

Pharmacopoea Austriaca  (6th ed., Vienna, 1906)

Pharmacopoea Borussica  (Berlin, 1827)

Philostratus the Athenian (or the Sophist) (3rd c.).  Philostratos über Gymnastik.  Ed. Julius Jüthner.  Amsterdam: B. R. Grüner, 1909.

Physiologus Latinus  (c. 400), in Emil Elias Steinmeyer, Die kleineren althochdeutschen Sprachdenkmäler (Berlin: Weidmann, 1916), pp. 124 seq.

PL -- Patrologia Latina

Pseudo-Asconius.  In Tullii Ciceronis orationem in Q. Caecilium quae divinatio dicitur.     Ed. Johann Kaspar von Orelli.  Cicero.  Opera quae supersunt omnia.  Zürich, 1833-61.  Vol. 5, part 1, pp. 97-124. 

PW -- Pauly, August, and Georg Wissowa, editors.  Paulys Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft: neue Bearbeitung.  Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1894-1980.

PW -- Pauly-Wissova, Real-encyclopädie

Rabelais, François, "Lettres et oeuvres diverses," in Oeuvres complètes, ed. Guy Demerson (Seuil: Paris, 1973)

Rabikauskas, Paul, Diplomatica pontificia (Rome, 1994)

Rafn, Antiquitates Americanae sive Scriptores Septentrionales rerum Ante-Columbianarum in America, (Hafniae, 1837)

Rambaud, Alfred.  De Byzantino hippodromo et circensibus factionibus.  Paris, 1870.

Reiske, Johannes Jacob, translator and annotator.  Constantinus Porphyrogenitus.  De cerimoniis aulae Byzantinae.  Bonn, 1829-30.   2 vols.  Original edition 1751-54.  Reiske (1716-1774), an autodidact who remained outside the academic establishment, was not only a brilliant Greek scholar (specializing in Byzantine literature), but the foremost Arabic philologist of his age.

Riddle, Joseph Esmond.  A Copious and Critical English-Latin Lexicon.  London, 1847.

Ruhnken Dict. Ter. -- David Ruhnken, In Terentii comoedias dictata (Bonn 1825)

Ruiz, Hipólito.  Florae Peruvianae et Chilensis prodromus.  Madrid, 1794.

Rupertus, Georgius Alexander (1758-1830), editor and annotator.  D. Junii Juvenalis sexdecim satirae.  Paris, 1825.  Series Bibliotheca Classica Latina.

Sandys, John Edwin, ed.  M. Tullli Ciceronis ad M. Brutum Orator.  Cambridge, 1885.

Scaliger Exercit. -- Iulius Caesar Scaliger, Exotericarum exercitationum liber quintus decimus de subtilitate (Frankfurt, 1582)

Scaliger, Julius Caesar.  Poetices libri septem.  Lyon, 1561.  (Citations are to book and chapter.)

Scheller, Deutch-Lateinisches Handlexikon (1796)

Schiemann, Elisabeth, Entstehung des Kulturpflanzen (Berlin: Bornträger, 1932)

Schoff, Wilfred H, translator and annotator.  The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.  London, 1912. 

Schopen, Ludwig (1799-1867), translator and annotator.  Anna Comnena.  Alexiadis libri XV.  Bonn, 1839.

Schrift . Kiel -- Schriften der Universität Kiel aus dem Jahre 1862 (Kiel, 1863)

Schurig, Martin.  Embryologia historico-medica.  Dresden & Leipzig: 1732.

Schweighäuser, Johann, editor and translator.  Athenaeus.  Deipnosophistarum libri quindecim.  Strasburg, 1801-07.

Septuagint , "Praef." -- "Praefatio ad lectorem,"  Η   Παλαια   Διαθηκη   κατα   τους   Εβδομηκοντα   ... Vetus Testamentum iuxta Septuaginta ex auctoritate Sixti V. Pont. Max. editum (Rome, 1587). This is the Sixtine or Roman edition of the Septuagint, probably the most influential until the 19th century.

Sinistrari, Ludovicus.  De delicitis et poenis tractatus absolutissimus.  Venice, 1700.

Smith -- Smith, William, An English-Latin Dictionary

Smith Ant. -- Smith, William.  A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.  London, 1875.

Somner, William (1598-1669) and Thomas Benson (born c. 1678).  Vocabularium Anglo-Saxonicum lexico Gulielmi Somneri magnâ parte auctius.  Oxford, 1701.  Somner's original edition was published in 1659; Benson substantially expanded it.

Sophocles, E. A.  Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods.  New York: F. Unger, 1957.

Soranus.  Sorani gynaeciorum vetus translatio latina.  Ed. Valentin Rose.  Leipzig: Teubner, 1882.

Soulis, George C.  "The Gypsies in the Byzantine Empire and the Balkans in the Late Middle Ages."  Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 15 (1961), 141-165.

Spanoghe, Emile.  Synonymia latino-teutonica.  Antwerp, 1892. 

Sprengel, Kurt.  Historia rei herbariae.  Amsterdam, 1807.

Springhetti, Aemilius (Emilio). Lexicon Linguisticae et Philologiae. Romae 1962

Stearn, William T.  Botanical Latin.  Timber Press: Portland, 1995.  4th edition.

Stumpf, Karl Gottlob.  Dissertatio inauguralis medica de cura dentium ad sanitatem proficua.  Halle, 1752.

Swieten, Gerard van, Commentaria in Hermanni Boerhaave aphorismos (Leiden, 1745-1772), quoted in C. A. Wunderlich, On the Temperature in Diseases (London, 1871)

Sydenham, Thomas.  Opera omnia.  Ed. William Greenhill.  London, 1844.

Szentiványi, Márton (1633-1705).  Curiosiora et selectiora variarum scientiarum miscellanea.  Trnava (Slovakia), 1689-1702. 

ThLG -- Stephanus, Thesaurus Linguae Graecae

ThLL -- Thesaurus Linguae Latinae

Thunberg, Carl Peter.  Flora Iaponica.  Leipzig, 1784.

Trabkin, I. E., editor and translator.  Caelius Aurelianus.  On Acute Diseases and On Chronic Diseases.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950.

Trappen, Jan Everard.  Specimen historico-medicum de coffea.  Utrecht, 1843.

Turs. -- Tursellinus, Horatius, Historiarum ab origine mundi usque ad annum 1598 epitome (Paris, 1652)

Velenovský, J.  Flora Bulgarica.  Prague, 1891.

Vives, Juan Luis, cited from Opera omnia (Valentiae, 1782), vol. 1  |  Stud. pueril.  Epistolae de ratione studii puerilis (1523)  |  Exer.  Exercitatio linguae Latinae (1523) (consisting of Vives' often reprinted colloquies or dialogues)

Vulcanius, Bonaventura.  De literis et lingua Getarum sive Gothorum.  Leiden, 1597.

Walde-Hofmann -- Walde, Alois, and J. B. Hofmann.  Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch.  Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1956.

Way, Nicholas.  Dissertation medica inauguralis de variolarum insitione.  Wilmington, Delaware, 1771.

William of Tyre (Guilelmus Tyrensis).  Historia Hierosolymitana.  In PL 201, 209-892.  Citations are to book and chapter.

Witte Phil. -- Witte, Henning, Memoriae philosophorum, oratorum, poetarum, historicorum et philologorum nostri saeculi clarissimorum renovatae decas prima (Frankfurt, 1677-1679)

Wolf, Hieronymus, trans.  Zonaras, Joannes.  Annales.  In PG vols. 134-135.  Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580) was a trail-blazing scholar of Byzantine history.  His edition and translation of Zonaras was first published in 1557.

Wolff, Christian.  Oratio de Sinarum philosophia practica. Ed. Michael von Albrecht.  Hamburg: Felix Meiner, 1985.  (Original edition: Frankfurt, 1726.)

Wyclif, John.  Opus evangelicum.  Ed. Iohann Loserth.  London, 1895.

Yule, Sir Henry, ed. and trans.  The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East.  3rd ed.  New York: Scribner's, 1903.

Zurich Letters (Second Series) Comprising the Correspondence of Several English Bishops and Others with Some the Helventian Reformers During the Reign of Queen Elizabeth .  Ed. Hastings Robinson.  Cambridge, 1845.

Zwei Handschriten aus dem ehemaligen Minoritenkloster zu Bonn .  Pick, R., ed.  In Annalen des historischen Vereins für den Niederrehin.  Heft 43.  Cologne, 1885.  pp. 87-207.

Zwinger, Theodor.  Compendium medicinae universae.  Basel, 1724.

Zwingli, Huldreich, Opera, eds. M. Schuler and J. Schultess (Zürich, 1830-1841)

//

//    GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES

// /general city: King's Mountain, Königsberg, Monterrey, Montréal  ► Regi(o)montium, i n.

// /general city: Newcastle, Neuchâtel, Châteauneuf  ► Novum Castellum  ¶ 1771 WAY dedication page (of the county in Delaware).

// /general city: Newport, Nieuwpoort  ► Neoportus, ûs m.  ¶ Graesse.  ► Neoportum, i n.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 28, of Belgian town.

// /town names in "St.": examples of use:  to the town of Saint-Laurent  ad fanum Divi Laurentii (1652 TURS. 371)  |  from the town of Saint-Laurent  e fano Divi Laurentii (1652TURS. 372)

// 2 Bengali  ► lingua Bengalica

// Arctic  arcticus, a, um (Hyg.; DANTE Aqua 477; EGGER S.L. 7)  ► arctôus (SEN. in tragedies; MART. )

// Arctic Ocean  Glacialis Oceanus (1811 PALLAS vi)  ► Mare Glaciale (1595 MERCATOR II "Polus Arcticus" map; 1811 PALLAS xi)

// Arctic zone  zona arctica (1811 PALLAS 52)

// Arctic: Antarctic  adj.  antarcticus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 25)

// Arctic: Antarctica  terra antarctica (EGGER D.L. 25)

// Arctic: North Pole  ► polus arcticus  ¶ DANTE Aqua 477.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 16.  ► polus septentrionalis  ¶ EGGER S.L. 44.   ► axis septentrionalis  ¶ EGGER S.L. 44.  ►polus glacialis  ¶ OV. M. 2, 173.   ► polus gelidus  ¶ OV. H. 18, 152.

// Arctic: South Pole  polus antarcticus (APUL.; DANTE Aqua 477)  ► polus austrâlis (OV. M. 2, 131)  ► polus austrînus (PLIN. 5, 56)

// Atlantic islands: Azores  ►► Tertiariae Insulae (1652 TURS. 263)

// Atlantic islands: Canary Islands  ► Insulae Fortûnâtae (f. pl.)  ¶ PLIN.  1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  1794 RUIZ viii.  ► Insulae Canariae (f. pl.)  ¶ Arn.  1595 MERCATOR II"Europa."

// Atlantic islands: Canary Islands: Tenerife  ► Teneriffa, ae f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ viii.  ► Ninguâria, ae f.  ¶ Plin. 6, 204.  Egger N.L.  ► Nivâria, ae f.  ¶ Plin. 6, 204 (variant reading). Egger N.L.

// Atlantic islands: Madeira  Materia, ae f.

// Atlantic Ocean  Mare Atlanticum (CIC.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Africa."  ► Oceanus Atlanticus (EGGER S.L. 34)

// Eurasia  Eurôpâsia, ae f., Eurâsia, ae f.;  adj.  Eurôpâsiânus, a, um, Eurâsiânus, a, um

// Pacific Ocean  Mare Pacificum (1784 DUCRUE 221)

//1 /Europe  Eurôpa, ae f. (Oros. 1, 2)

//1 /Europe  Eurôpa, ae f. (PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Orbis Terrae."  |  adj.  Eurôpaeus, a, um

//1 Austria  ► Austria, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae." 1674 MILTON XIII. 28.  1652 TURS. 206 et passim.  1784 DUCRUE 265.  EGGER S.L. 26.

//1 Austria cities: Innsbruck  Aenipons, ontis m. (EGGER D.L. 12)  ► Oenipons, ntis m.;  adj.  Aenipontînus, a, um, Oenipontînus, a, um (PERUGINI, Concordata 26)

//1 Austria cities: Salzburg  Salzburgensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Austria cities: Vienna  ► Vienna, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae."  1652 TURS. 252 et passim.  1843 TRAPPEN 26.  EGGER S.L. 58, quoting Latin inscription of 16th-century coin.  ► Vindobona, ae f.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ vi.  EGGER S.L. 57.  |  adj.  ► Viennensis, e  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae."  1652 TURS. 332.  ►► Vienna is slightly more common than Vindobona in printed books (WC).

//1 Austria regions: Carinthia  Carinthia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Salzburg" map)

//1 Austria regions: Styria   Stiria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Stiria")

//1 Austrian  subst.  ► Austriacus, i (1652 TURS. 314; 1784 DUCRUE 265; 1843 TRAPPEN 51; PERUGINI, Concordata 42)  |  adj.  ► Austriacus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Austria";1652 TURS. 249 et passim; PERUGINI, Concordata 33; EGGER S.L. 57)

//1 Belgium  ► Belgium, i n.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 78.  ► Belgium Meridiânum  ¶ Cf. the use of Belgium Septentrionale of the Netherlands:  Alexander Suerman, Specimen historico-medicum de cholerae Asiaticae itinere per Belgium septentrionale, annis 1832-1834 (Utrecht, 1835).    ►► The term Belgium, at least through the 18th century, refers in Latin to the Low Countries generally.

//1 Belgium cities: Antwerp  Antverpia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Brabantia"; 1652 TURS. 263)  |  adj.  Antverpiensis, e (1652 TURS. 367)

//1 Belgium cities: Bruges  Bruga, ae f. (1652 TURS. 386)  ► Brugae, arum f. pl. (WC)

//1 Belgium cities: Brussels  ► Bruxellae, arum f. pl.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 30.  1652 TURS. 382.  ► Bruxella, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Brabantia."  1652 TURS. 348.  |  adj.  ►Bruxellensis, e  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 327.  ►► Bruxellae is much more common than Bruxella in printed books (WC).

//1 Belgium cities: Charleroi

//1 Belgium cities: Ghent  Gandavum, i n. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Flandria"; 1652 TURS. 401)  |  adj.  Gandavensis, e (1652 TURS. 367, 401)

//1 Belgium cities: Leuven, Louvain  Lovanium, i n. (1540 VIVES Exer. 363; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Brabantia"; 1652 TURS. 263, 348)

//1 Belgium cities: Liège

//1 Belgium cities: Namur  Namurcum, i n. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hannonia," map)  |  adj.  Namurcensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hannonia")

//1 Belgium cities: Ostend, Oostende  ► Ostenda, ae f.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 28.  1652 TURS. 281.

//1 Belgium regions: Brabant  Branbantia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Branbantia"; 1652 TURS. 333, 348)

//1 Belgium regions: Flanders  ► Flandria, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Flandria."  1674 MILTON XIII. 28.  1652 TURS. 345 et passim.

//1 Belgium regions: Fleming  Flander, dri m. (1652 TURS. 369)

//1 Belgium regions: Flemish  Flandricus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 92)  ► Flandrensis, e (1540 VIVES Exer. 332)

//1 Belgium regions: Hainault  Hannonia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hannonia")

//1 Belgium: Low Countries (historical region of Europe, corresponding roughly to contemporary Netherlands, Belgium and Luxemburg)  ► Belgium, i n.  ¶ 1674MILTON XIII. 12; 28.  1652 TURS. 272 et passim.  1784 THUNBERG xiii.  ► Belgica, ae f.  ¶  ► Belgium Inferius  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Belgii Inferioris Tabula."

//1 Britain  Brittania, ae f.;  British  subst.  Britannus, i m., Anglobritannus, i m. 1843 TRAPPEN 24 et passim)  |  adj.  Britannicus, a, um

//1 Britain cities: Cambridge  Cantabrigia, ae f.

//1 Britain cities: Canterbury  Cantuaria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 10)  |  adj.  Cantuarensis, e (1652 TURS. 367; EGGER S.L. 10)

//1 Britain cities: Dover  Dubrae, arum f. pl. (EGGER citing ancient source)  ► Dovertium, i (1652 TURS. 389)

//1 Britain cities: Edinburg  Edinburgum, i n.;  adj.  Edinburgensis, e  ►► Edimburgensis (EGGER S.L. 10)  ► Edimburgum (EGGER S.L. 11)

//1 Britain cities: Glasgow  Glasgua, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 11)

//1 Britain cities: Greenwich  ► Grenovîcum, i n.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 28.

//1 Britain cities: Liverpool  adj. Liverpulensis, e (EGGER S.L. 11)

//1 Britain cities: London  ► Londînium, i n.  ¶ TAC.; Amm.   ► Londînum, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 276, 323.  1826 LÜDERS v.  1843 TRAPPEN 25. |  adj.  Londîniensis, e  ¶ EGGER S.L. 10.  ► Londînensis, i  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 2.  1843 TRAPPEN 111.  ►► In the title pages of printed books, the spellings in -ium and -iensis are much rarer than those in -um and -ensis (WC).

//1 Britain cities: London: Palace of Westminster, Houses of Parliament  ► aula Vistminsterii  ¶ 1652 TURS. 411.

//1 Britain cities: London: Tower of London  Turris Londînensis (1652 TURS. 410)  ► Turris Londîni (1652 TURS. 413)

//1 Britain cities: London: Westminster (area of central London)  ► Vestmonasterium, i n.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 8 et passim: "Westmonasterio," at end of official government letters).

//1 Britain cities: Oxford  Oxonia, ae f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 256)

//1 Britain cities: York  Eboracum, i n. (Eutr.)  |  adj.  Eboracensis, e (1652 TURS. 347)

//1 Britain counties: Cheshire  ►    ►► Chestria, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Devon  ► Devonia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Dorset  ► Dorsetia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Gloucestershire  ► Glocestria, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Hampshire  ► Hampia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Kent  ► Cantium, i n.  ¶ 1771 WAY dedication page (of the county in Delaware)

//1 Britain counties: Lancashire  ► Lancastria, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Leicestershire  ► Leicestria, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Lincolnshire  ► Lincolnia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Somerset  ► Somersetia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Sussex  ► Sussexia, ae f.  ¶ 1771 WAY dedication page (of the county in Delaware)

//1 Britain counties: York  ►    ►► Yorkia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain islands: Hebrides  Haebudes, um f. pl. (PLIN. 4, 103)  ► Hebrides, um f. pl. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa")

//1 Britain islands: Isle of Man  Mona, ae f. (CAES.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Britannicae Insulae")

//1 Britain islands: Isle of Wight  Vectis, is f. (PLIN.; SUET.)

//1 Britain islands: Jersey  Caesarea, ae f. ; Barsa, ae f. (cf. Berry)

//1 Britain islands: Jersey: Guernsey , Caesarea, ae f. (cf. Berry)

//1 Britain islands: Orkney Islands  Orcades, um f. pl. (PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Britannicae Insulae."

//1 Britain islands: Shetland Islands Aemodae Insulae, arum f.pl. (Mela 182), Shetlandia, ae f.

//1 Britain regions: England  ► Anglia, ae f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 325.  1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  1652 TURS. 328 et passim.  EGGER S.L. 10.

//1 Britain regions: English  adj.  ► Anglicus, a, um  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 325.  1674 MILTON XIII. 48 et passim.  ► Anglicânus, a, um  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 4: "Senatus populusque Anglicanus."  1674 MILTON XIII. 32: "classem Anglicanam"; et passim.

//1 Britain regions: Englishman  subst.  ► Anglus, i m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 22 et passim.

//1 Britain regions: Scot(sman)  subst.  ► Calêdo, onis m.  ¶ Flor.   ► Scotus, i m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 12.  1652 TURS. 357, 436.  EGGER S.L. 7.

//1 Britain regions: Scotch, Scottish  adj.  Calêdonius, a, um (PLIN.)  ► Calêdonicus, a, um (Sol.)  ► Scoticus, a, um

//1 Britain regions: Scotland  Calêdonia, ae f. (TAC.)  ► Scotia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa"; 1652 TURS. 274 et passim; EGGER S.L. 10)

//1 Britain regions: Wales  ► Vallia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 436.  EGGER S.L. 10.  ► Cambria, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 10.

//1 Britain regions: Welsh  subst.  ► Camber, bri m.  ¶  ► Cambrobritannus, i m.  ¶ 1832 Alexandre 7A, 179.  |  adj.  ► Vallicus, a, um  ¶   ► Cambricus, a, um  ¶  ► Cambro-britannicus, a, um  ¶ Ducange s.v. manganum in article. 

//1 Britain: Anglo-Saxon  subst.  Anglosaxo, onis m. (DUCANGE s.v. iurata in article)

//1 Britain: English Channel  Fretum Brittanicum (EGGER S.L. 53)

//1 Britain: English Channel  Mare Britannicum (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia" map)  ► Frêtum Britannicum

//1 Britain: Great Britain  Britannia, ae f., Maior Britannia (1652 TURS. 278 et passim)  ► Magna Britannia (1652 TURS. 347; EGGER S.L. 78)

//1 Britain: Manchester  Mancestria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 11)  ► Mancunium, i n. (EGGER S.L. 11)

//1 Britain: United Kingdom

//1 Celt, Kelt  subst.  Celta, ae m. (Caes.; Liv.)

//1 Celt: Gael (Scottish or Irish Celt)  subst.  Gaedelus, i m. (Zeuss viii; cf. Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots, ed. Joseph Riston [Edinburg, 1828], II. 70, in a medieval Scottish chronicle: Goedelicus)  ►► In Zeuss, the terms Gaedelus and Gaedelicus (like English Gael and Gaelic in the 19c) apply only to the Scottish Celts.

//1 Celt: Gaelic  adj.  Gaedelicus, a, um (Zeuss viii et passim)  ► Gadelicus, a, um  ¶ See titles Silva GadelicaCarmina Gadelica. [Also gadelica, gadelici in Analecta Bollandiana, in continuous prose, snippet view.]

//1 Celt: Gaelic (language)  linguae Gaedelica  |  in Gaelic  Gaedelicê  |  Irish Gaelic  lingua Hiberna Gaeledica

//1 Celtic, Keltic  adj.  Celticus, a, um (Plin.)

//1 Czech (language)  ► lingua Bohêmica  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ iv.  |  in Czech  ► Bohêmicê  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Bohemia."

//1 Czech cities: Pilsen, Plzeň  Pilsna, ae f. (1652 TURS. 311)

//1 Czech cities: Prague  ► Praga, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Bohemia."  1652 TURS. 275 et passim.  1843 TRAPPEN 26.  EGGER R.A. 100.  |  adj.  ► Pragensis, e  ¶ 1652 TURS.227, 308.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ vi.

//1 Czech regions: Moravia  Moravia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Moravia."  |  adj.  Moravicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 312)

//1 Czech Republic  Bohêmia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Bohemia"; 1652 TURS. 338)  ► Boêmia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 212 et passim)

//1 Czech, Bohemian  adj.  ► Bohêmicus, a, um  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 263.  ► Boêmicus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 179, 222. 

//1 Czech, Bohemian  subst.  ► Bohêmus, i m.  ¶ TAC. G. 28.  1784 DUCRUE 222.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ iii.  ► Boêmus, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 224 et passim.  ► Zechus, i m.  ¶ 1670DUCANGE trans. 12th-c. CINNAMUS 409 (in index): "Zechi ... Zechorum princeps a Conrado imperatore rex dictus."  Cf. Zechius, of Čech, legendary founder of the Czech nation:  1688DUCANGE Graec.: "T ζέχοι , Bohemi, sic dicti a Zechio primo eorum duce, de quo Aeneas Sylvius in Hist. Bohem. c. 4, et Luccarius in Annal. Ragusin. lib. 1."  1670 DUCANGE trans. 12th-c.CINNAMUS 332: "a Lecho primo gentis [Polonicae] auctore, Zechii Bohemiae principis fratre."  ► Tzechus, i m.  ¶ 1650 CLAUSER trans. 15th-c. LAONICUS CHALCONDYLES bk. 5 (PG 159, 258): "Pannones [scil. Hungari] gerebant bellum cum Germanis ... Postea bellum indixere Tzechis, qui Bohemi dicuntur ( προς Τζέχουςκαι Βοεμίους καλουμένους)."  1670 DUCANGE trans. 12th-c. CINNAMUS 2, 18 (p. 84): "Horum alter Tzechorum genti imperitabat (των Τζέχων κατηρχεν έθνους) ... alter praeerat Lechis [scil. Polonis], Scythicae genti."  Ibid. 5, 8 (p. 222): "Gnarum vero Tzechorum linguae (της Τζέχων συνιέντα γλώττης) Romanum quendam ad se vocat ut mutatis vestibus castra hostium subiret, atque ubi ad regis Tzechorum venisset conspectum, eum hisce verbis alloqueretur."  EGGER D.L. 38.  Cf. Byz. Gr. Τζέχος:  1688 DUCANGE Graec., quoted above.    ►► The ancient manuscripts have various spellings: Boi(h)emus, Boi(h)aemus, Bo(h)emus.  In printed books in Latin, Bo(h)emus, Bo(h)emia has been the standard form, the spelling with h being considerably more common than that without (WC titles).  ||  In the Czech language the same adjective (český) means "Bohemian" and "Czech."  Thus the Czech name for the Czech Republic (Česká republika) could also be translated as "Bohemian Republic."  ► Cechus (EGGER D.L. 38). 

//1 France cities: Aix-en-Provence  Aquae Sextiae f. pl. (LIV.; PLIN.)  |  adj.  Aquensis, a (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)

//1 France cities: Ajaccio  Aiax, âcis m.;  adj.  Aiacensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Corsica")

//1 France cities: Angers  Andegavum, i n.

//1 France cities: Avignon  Avenio, ônis m. (Plin; 1652 TURS. 220, 301)  |  adj.  Avenionesis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania."  ►► Avennio (EGGER R.A. 27)

//1 France cities: Besançon  Vesontio, ônis m. (CAES.)  |  adj.  Vesontînus, a, um (cf. 1595 MERCATOR I, "Burgundia")

//1 France cities: Bourdeaux  ► Burdegala, ae f.  ¶ MART.  1652 TURS. 213.  |  adj.  ► Burdegalensis, e  ¶ Aus.  1540 VIVES Exer. 353: "vinum Burdegalense."  1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania."  1652 TURS. 34.  1826 LÜDERS 26.

//1 France cities: Caen  Cadomum, i n. (1652 TURS. 318)

//1 France cities: Cannes  Canoae, arum f. pl. (Noël)

//1 France cities: Carcassonne  Carcassôna, ae f. (1652 TURS. 371)

//1 France cities: Chartres  Carnûtum, i n. (1652 TURS. 314; cf. Carnûtes, um m., CAES., of the Gallic people that give the town its name)  ► Carnotum, i n. (Graesse)  ► Autricum Carnutum (WC publication locations)  |  adj.  Carnûtensis, e (WC titles)  ► Carnotensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia."  ► Carnôtênus, a, um (SulpSev., of the Gallic people; Graesse)

//1 France cities: Clairmont  Claramontium, i n.;  adj.  Claramontanus, a, um, Claramontensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Berry")

//1 France cities: Dijon  Divio, onis (EGGER S.L. 20)  |  adj.  Divionensis, e (DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum; EGGER S.L. 20)

//1 France cities: Fontainebleau  Fons Bellae Aquae (DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)

//1 France cities: Fontainebleau  Fons Bellaqueus (Graesse; cf. title in WC: Marron, P.H., Ad Fontes Bellaqueos (Fontainebleau) in laeto de gravidâ Gallorum Imperatrice nuntio, Paris 1810)  ► Bellofontanum, i n. (Graesse)  ►► Fontenoblêum, i n. (1652 TURS. 273)

//1 France cities: Grenoble  Grâtiânopolis, is f. (AUG.; 1652 TURS. 265, 357)  |  adj.  Grâtiânopolitânus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)

//1 France cities: La Rochelle  Rupella, ae f. (1652 TURS. 262 et passim)  |  adj.  Rupellensis, e (1652 TURS. 279)  ► Rupellânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 322, 339)

//1 France cities: Le Havre  Franciscopolis, is f., Portus Gratiae (1652 TURS. 434)

//1 France cities: Lille  urbs Insulae (1652 TURS. 377)  ► Insulae, arum f. pl. (WC)

//1 France cities: Lyon  Lugdûnum, i n. (PLIN.; RABELAIS 942)  |  adj.  Lugdûnensis, e

//1 France cities: Marseille  Massilia, ae f. (CIC.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 284)  |  adj.  Massiliensis, e (CIC.; CAES.)  ► Massiliôticus, a, um (PLIN.; MART. Cap.)  ► Massilîtânus, a, um (VITR.; ;23)

//1 France cities: Monaco  Arx Monoeci, Monacum, i n. (1652 TURS. 386)  |  adj.  Monoecensis, e (EGGER S.L. 22, 54)  ►► Monoecus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 40)

//1 France cities: Montpellier  ► Monspelium, i n.  ► Monspessulum, i n.  ¶ RABELAIS 944.  ► Mons Pessulânus  ¶ 1652 TURS. 330.  1826 LÜDERS 26.  |  adj.  ►Monspessulânus, a, um  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 26.

//1 France cities: Nancy  Nanceium, i n. (1652 TURS. 346)

//1 France cities: Nantes  Namnêtes, um m. pl. (Ven. Ep. 3)  ► Nannêtes, um m. pl. (1652 TURS. 299: cf. 1652 TURS. 337: Nanetum)  |  adj.  Nannetensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia."  ►► The form found as publication place in printed books is Nanneti, orum (WC).

//1 France cities: Narbonne  Narbôna, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; 392).;  adj.  Narbônensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania")

//1 France cities: Nice  Nîcaea, ae (PLIN.)  |  adj.  Nîcaeensis, e (CIC.)

//1 France cities: Nîmes  Nemausum, i n. (PLIN.)  |  adj.  Nemausensis, e (PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania")

//1 France cities: Orléans  Aurêliâna, ae f. (cf. Jord. 37, 194: civitas Aureliana)  ► Aurêliâni, orum m. pl., Aurêlia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 343 et passim)  ► Aurêliânum, i n. (1652 TURS. 236)  ► Aurêliopolis, is f.;  adj.  Aurêliânensis, e (SID. 8, 15 urbs Aurêlianensis; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia"; 1652 TURS. 237 et passim)  ► Aurêliânus, a, um (Jord. 37, 194: civitas Aurêliâna; 1652 TURS. 344)  ►► As a publication place in Latin books, Aureliana, Aurelia and Aureliani are the most common (WC).

//1 France cities: Paris  Parisii, orum m. pl. (1540 VIVES Exer. 385; 1652 TURS. 261)  ► Lutetia, ae f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 385; RABELAIS 948; 1652 TURS. 265)  ► Lutetia Parisiorum (1540 VIVES Exer. 385; EGGER S.L. 20)  |  adj.  Parisiacus, a, um (Ven. Fort.; 1652 TURS. 425)  ► Parisînus, a, um, Parisiensis, e (1540 VIVES Exer. 353; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Francia, Picardia"; 1652 TURS. 265 et passim1843 TRAPPEN 7)  ► Lutetiânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 341)  ►► Parisii appears much more common than Lutetia (WC publication locations).  ThatLutetia belongs rather to the high style is clear from this exchange in one of VIVES' dialogues (Exer. 385)  ► where the first speaker is less cultivated than the second: "Unde tu iam nobis ... ?  – Lutetiâ.  – Quâ tandem Lutetiâ?  ... – Lutetiâ Parisiorum.  – Parisios nominari audieram, et quidem saepe, Lutetiam numquam; est ergo Lutetia quos nos Parisios dicimus?"

//1 France cities: Paris: (château of) Saint-Germain-en-Laye  castrum Divi Germani in Laia (1652 TURS. 396)

//1 France cities: Paris: Bastille  Bastilia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 302: "in arcem Bastiliae";  1652 TURS. 426: "Bastiliae castrum")

//1 France cities: Paris: Bois de Vincennes  saltus Vincennarum (1652 TURS. 304)

//1 France cities: Paris: Cathedral of Notre Dame  aedes Virgini Matri sacra (ERASMUS Coll. 172)  ► templum Beatae Virgini sacrum (1652 TURS. 419)  ► basilica Divae Mariae (1652TURS. 334)  ► aedes Beatae Virginis (Bonon. Acad. I, 69)

//1 France cities: Paris: Church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés  fanum Divi Germani (1652 TURS. 367)

//1 France cities: Paris: faubourg Saint-Germain  suburbium Divi Germani (1540 VIVES Exer. 387)

//1 France cities: Paris: Louvre  ► Lupara, ae f.  ¶  ► Musêum Luparêum  |  adj.  ► Luparêus, a, um  ¶ PG 159, 7 (contents page), of an scholarly edition published by the Imprimerie royale, housed in the Louvre: "ex editione Luparea anni 1650."

//1 France cities: Paris: Saint Denis Basilica, Basilique Saint-Denis  Sancti Dionysii basilica (1652 TURS. 397)

//1 France cities: Paris: Sorbonne  Sorbôna, ae f. (ERASMUS)  |  adj.  Sorbônicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 296: "doctor Sorbonicus")

//1 France cities: Perpignan  Perpiniânum, i n. (1652 TURS. 213 et passim)  |  adj.  Perpiniânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 391)

//1 France cities: Reims  ► Rêmi, orum m. pl.  ¶ Amm. 15, 11.  Hofmann s.v. Hugo Capetus: "Rex proclamatus est Novioduni, Remisque coronatus."  EGGER N.L.  ► Rhêmi, orum m. pl.  ¶1652 TURS. 236  |  adj.  Remensis, e  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Francia, Picardia."  EGGER N.L.

//1 France cities: Rennes  Redones, um m. pl.;  adj.  Redonensis, e (DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)

//1 France cities: Rouen  Rotomagus, i f. (Greg.)  ► Rotomagi, orum m. pl. (Amm.)  |  adj.  Rotomagensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia"; DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)

//1 France cities: Sedan (known for 1870 battle)  Sedânum, i n. (1652 TURS. 374)

//1 France cities: Strasbourg  Argentorâtus, i f. (EGGER D.L. 22; EGGER R.A. 84)  ► Argentîna, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; EGGER R.A. 84: "Argentina est nomen inferiore aetate inditum urbi Argentorato, quae est Alsatiae caput."  ►► The name Argentoratus is much more common than Argentina in printed books (WC).

//1 France cities: Toulouse  Tolôsa, ae f. (CAES.; CIC.; 1652 TURS. 313, 346)  |  adj.  Tolôsânus, a, um (CIC.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)  ► Tolôsas, âtis (MART. )

//1 France cities: Tours  ► Turones, um m. pl.  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.   ► Turoni, orum m. pl.  ¶ CAES.  TAC.  1652 TURS. 314.  |  adj.  ► Turonicus, a, um  ¶ SulpSev.  ► Turonensis, e  ¶1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 19.  1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia."

//1 France cities: Verdun  Verodûnum, i (Greg.)  ► Verdûnum, i n. (1652 TURS. 397)  |  adj.  Verodûnesis, e

//1 France cities: Vichy  adj.  Viciensis, e (Dunglison 88)

//1 France mountains: Jura  Iûra, ae m. (CAES.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia")

//1 France mountains: Vosges  Vosegus, i m. (CAES.)  ► Vogesus, i m. (1595 MERCATOR I,Lotharingiae Ducatus")

//1 France regions: Alsace  Alsatia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 345, 423)  ► EGGER R.A. 84)  |  subst.  Alsâtus, i m.;  adj.  Alsaticus, a, um (all in WC)

//1 France regions: Anjou  adj.  Andegavensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Anjou"; 1652 TURS. 362, 396)

//1 France regions: Aquitaine, Gascony, southwestern France  Aquitânia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 350)

//1 France regions: Auvergne  Arvernia, ae (1652 TURS. 304)  ► Avernia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 284)  |  subst.  Arvernus, i m. (CAES.)

//1 France regions: Béarn  Bearnum, i n. (1652 TURS. 319)  |  adj.  Bearnensis, e (1652 TURS. 318)

//1 France regions: Bourbonnais  Borbonia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 336)

//1 France regions: Breton (language)  lingua Brittanica (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia."  |  speak Breton  Brittanicê loqui (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia")

//1 France regions: Brittany  Britannia Minor, Armorica, ae f. (CAES.; 1652 TURS. 270)  ► Arêmorica, ae f. (Aus.; EGGER S.L. 45 1652 TURS. 345)  ► Britannia Armorica (1652 TURS.337, 401)

//1 France regions: Burgundy  Burgundia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Burgundia"; 1652 TURS. 230 et passim)  |  subst.  Burgudio, ônis m. (PLIN.; SID.; 1652 TURS. 236)  ► Burgundius, i m. (Amm.)  ► Burgundus, i m. (1652 TURS. 230, 370)

//1 France regions: Champagne  Campania, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia"; 1652 TURS. 397)

//1 France regions: Corsica  Corsica, ae f.

//1 France regions: Dauphiné  Delphinâtus, ûs m. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania")

//1 France regions: Franche-Comté  Liber Comitâtus (1595 MERCATOR I, "Burgundia Superior")

//1 France regions: Gascony  Aquitânia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 318)

//1 France regions: Limousin

//1 France regions: Lorraine  Lotharingiae, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Lotharingiae Ducatus"; 1652 TURS. 335 et passim)  |  subst.  Lotharingius, i m. (1652 TURS. 436)  ► Lotharingus, i m. (1652 TURS. 236, 419)  ► Lotharênus, a, um (1652 TURS. 335;  adj.  Lotharingicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 275, 324)  ► Lotharênus, a, um (1652 TURS. 335

//1 France regions: Norman  subst.  Normannus, i m. (1652 TURS. 179)  |  adj.  Normannicus, a, um

//1 France regions: Normandy  Normandia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia" map; 1652 TURS. 375, 427)  ► Normannia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 188 et passim)  ► Northmannia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 318)

//1 France regions: Occitan language

//1 France regions: Occitan: Languedoc

//1 France regions: Occitan: Occitania, southern France  Occitânia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 272, 345)  ► Occitâna Gallia (1652 TURS. 342)  |  adj.  Occitânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 341)

//1 France regions: Occitan: Provençal  subst.  Provinciâlis, is m. (DANTE Vulg. El. 326)  |  adj.  Provinciâlis, e 

//1 France regions: Occitan: Provence  Provincia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; 1652 TURS. 254, 347)  |  adj.  Provinciâlis, is (1652 TURS. 284)

//1 France regions: Picardy  Picardia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Francia, Picardia"; 1652 TURS. 350, 396)

//1 France regions: Poitou  Pictavia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I,  "Poictou" map)  |  adj.  Pictaviensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I,  "Poictou."

//1 France regions: Roussillon  Rusillio, ônis (1652 TURS. 368, 391)  |  adj.  Russiliânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 371, 391)

//1 France regions: Savoy  Sabaudia, ae (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; 1652 TURS. 238 et passim; EGGER S.L. 21, 54)  |  subst.  Sabaudus, i m. (1652 TURS. 395)  ► Sabaudiânus, i m. (1652 TURS. 333, 343)  ► Allôbrox, ogis m. (1652 TURS. 343)  |  adj.  Sabaudicus, a, um (WC)  ►► Sapaudus (EGGER R.A. 73)

//1 France rivers: Mose  Mosa, ae m. (CAES.; PLIN.)

//1 France rivers: Moselle  Mosella, ae f. (1652 TURS. 397)

//1 France rivers: Rhone  Rhodanus, i m.;  adj.  Rhodanicus, a, um

//1 France rivers: Seine  Sêquana, ae f.

//1 France: France  ► Gallia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  EGGER S.L. 78.  ► Galliae, arum f. pl.  ¶ CIC. Prov. Cons. 2, 3.  1794 RUIZ ix.  ► Francia, ae f.  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 387.  1652 TURS. 195 et passim, of both medieval and modern France.  DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum et passim.  ► Francogallia, ae* f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS v.  ► Gallofrancia, ae* f.  ¶1843 TRAPPEN 37.  ►► The ordinary terms for France at all periods are "Gallia" and "Francia"; the former is more common.  "Francogallia" appears to have coined by François Hotman for his book of that title (1574); it is rare before the 19th century, and "Gallofrancia" is still rarer.

//1 France: French  adj.  ► Gallicus, a, um  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 312.  1652 TURS. 256.  ► Francicus, a, um  ¶ DUCANGE s.v. parlamentumet passim.  1652 TURS. 236, et passim, referring to both medieval and modern periods.  ► Francogallicus, a, um  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 26.  ► Gallofrancicus, a, um  ►

//1 France: French (language)  ► lingua Gallica  ¶  |  in French  ► Gallicê  ¶ Marc. Emp. 31, 29 (p. 332), meaning "in the Gaulish language."

//1 France: Frenchman  subst.  Gallus, i m. (1652 TURS. 256)  ► Francus, i m. (DANTE Vulg. El. 325; 1652 TURS. 201 et passim, using Gallus and Francus without distinction, in passages referring to both medieval and modern periods)  ► Francogallus, i m., Gallofrancus, i m. 1843 TRAPPEN 23 et passim)

//1 German  subst.  Germânus, i m. 1843 TRAPPEN 51)  ► Theotiscus, i m.;  adj.  Germânicus, a, um (LEIBNIZ; Schegel; PERUGINI, Concordata 9; EGGER S.L. 15)  ► Theotiscus, a, um (Schlegel)  ►► Germanus and Germanicus are the usual words for "German."  The medieval Latin word Theotiscus appears since the Renaissance to have been used chiefly with respect to medieval Germany and in particular Old High German.  The spelling Theodiscus (HELFER; Albert) seems to be much rarer than Theotiscus (see WC).

//1 German (language)  ► lingua Germânica  |  in German  ► Germânicê  ¶ EGGER R.A. 145.  ► Theotiscê 

//1 German (language): Old High German  ► lingua Palaeogermanica  ¶ 1821 HAGEN title page: "monumenta ... palaeogermanica."

//1 Germanic  adj.  Teutonicus, a, um (in antiquity, of a particular Germanic people; since 17th c., as generally term for all Germanic peoples) (1595 MERCATOR I, "Flandria": "in Flandria Teutonica," of the Germanic-speaking part of Flanders, opposed to "Flandria Gallicana," of the French- or Wallon-speaking part)

//1 Germanic tribes: Frank  Francus, i m. (1652 TURS. 147)

//1 Germanic tribes: Goth  ► Gothus, i m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 54.  |  adj.  ► Gothicus, a, um

//1 Germanic tribes: Ostrogoth

//1 Germanic tribes: Vandal  ► Vandalus, i m.  ¶ SID.  Vop.  1674 MILTON XIII. 54.  ► Vandil(i)us, i m.  ¶ TAC.  PLIN.   |  adj.  ► Vandalicus, a, um  ¶ Jord.

//1 Germanic tribes: Visigoth

//1 Germany  Germânia, ae f.

//1 Germany cities: Aachen  Aquisgranum, i n. (1652 TURS. 298; EGGER N.L.)  ► Aquisgrana, ae (1652 TURS. 145)  |  adj.  Aquisgranensis, e (1652 TURS. 298; EGGER N.L.)

//1 Germany cities: Augsburg  Augusta, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Germany cities: Baden-Baden  Aurêlia Aquensis (WC publication locations)

//1 Germany cities: Berlin  ► Berolinum, i n.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 21.  EGGER S.L. 34.  |  adj.  ► Berolinensis, e  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxvi.

//1 Germany cities: Bremen  Bremum, i n. (1652 TURS. 353)  |  adj.  Bremensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Germany cities: Brunswick, Braunschweig  Brunsvicum, i n. (Graesse)  |  adj.  Brunsvicensis, e (1652 TURS. 336)

//1 Germany cities: Cologne  Colônia Agrippîna (TAC.; 1652 TURS. 435)  ► Colônia Agrippînensis (TAC.)  ► Colônia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 292 et passim; EGGER N.L.)  |  adj. Agrippînensis, e (TAC.)  ► Colôniensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 312 et passim; EGGER N.L.)

//1 Germany cities: Dresden  Dresda, ae f. (1652 TURS. 306; Sillig i; EGGER S.L. 34)  |  adj.  Dresdensis, i (Sillig i)

//1 Germany cities: Frankfurt  Francofurtum, i n. (1652 TURS. 312; EGGER N.L.)

//1 Germany cities: Hamburg  ► Hamburgum, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 362.  1843 TRAPPEN 51.  EGGER N.L.   |  adj.  ► Hamburgensis, e  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae."  1674MILTON XIII. 12.  EGGER N.L.

//1 Germany cities: Kiel  ► Kilia, ae f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS title page.  ► Kilonium, i n.  ¶ Graesse.  < Kilia is much more common in the titles of published books (WC).  |  adj.  ► Kiliensis, e ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 10.

//1 Germany cities: Leipzig  ► Lipsia, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 26.

//1 Germany cities: Lübeck  adj.  Lubecensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae')

//1 Germany cities: Mainz  Moguntia, ae (Ven. Fort.; 1652 TURS. 345)  ► Mogontiacum, i n. (TAC.; Eutr.)  |  adj.  Mogontiacus, a, um (Amm.)  ► Moguntînus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 312, 371)

//1 Germany cities: Munich  Monachium, i n. (PERUGINI, Concordata 13; EGGER D.L. 42)  ►► Monachium is far more common in the publication location of printed books thanMonac(h)um (WC)

//1 Germany cities: Münster  Monasterium, i n., Monasterium Vestfalorum (v. Vestfaliae) (all in WC publication locations)  |  adj.  Monasteriensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Vestfalia" map; 1652TURS. 405)

//1 Germany cities: Nuremberg, Nürnberg  ► Norimberga, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 277; 313.  |  adj.  ► Norimbergensis, e  ¶ 1726 Wolff 80.

//1 Germany cities: Regensburg  Ratisbona, ae f. (1652 TURS. 348, 366)  |  adj.  Ratisbonensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 331 et passim)

//1 Germany cities: Trier, Trève  Trêveri, ôrum m. pl. (Amm.)  |  adj.  Trêvericus, a, um (PLIN.)  ► Trêverensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae."  ► Triverensis, e (1652 TURS. 312)

//1 Germany cities: Weimar  Vimaria, ae f.;  adj.  Vimariensis (1652 TURS. 346, 353; PERUGINI, Concordata 9)

//1 Germany cities:  Würzburg  Herbipolis, is f. (1652 TURS. 292)

//1 Germany regions: Franconia, Franken  Franconia, ae (1595 MERCATOR I, "Franconia"; 1652 TURS. 292, 348)  ► Francia Orientâlis (1595 MERCATOR I, "Franconia" map; 1652TURS. 433)

//1 Germany regions: Holstein  ► Holsatia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Vestafalia" map.  1652 TURS. 399.  1826 LÜDERS 1 et passim.  |  adj.  ► Holsaticus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 26.

//1 Germany regions: Mecklenburg  ► Ducatus Megapolitânus 1826 LÜDERS 2.  ► Ducatus Magnopolensis ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Brandenburg."  |  adj.  ► Megapolitânus, a, um1826 LÜDERS 2.  ► Magnopolensis, e  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Brandenburg."

 //1 Germany regions: northern Germany  Germania inferior (1595 MERCATOR I, "Vestfalia")

//1 Germany regions: Pomerania  Pomerânia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Brandenburg"; 1652 TURS. 364)

//1 Germany regions: Prussia  ► Borussia, ae f.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 44.  1826 LÜDERS 20.  ► Prussia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia."  1652 TURS. 349.

//1 Germany regions: Prussian (subst.)  ► Borussus, i m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF title page.  1846 GROSSE title page.  |  adj.  ► Borussicus, a, um

//1 Germany regions: Schleswig  ► Slesvîcum, i n.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 9: "ducatuum Slesvici et Holsatiae."

//1 Germany regions: Swabia, Schwaben  Suêvia, ae (TAC.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia" map; 1652 TURS. 287 et passim)  |  subst.  Suêvus, i (CAES.)  |  adj.  Suêvicus, a, um (TAC.;1595 MERCATOR I, "Zurichgow")

//1 Germany regions: Westphalia  Vestfalia, ae (1595 MERCATOR I, "Vestfalia."  |  Vestphalia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 330, 345)  |  adj.  Vestfalicus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Vestfalia")

//1 Germany regions: Württemberg  adj.  Virtenbergensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Palatinatus Rheni" map)

//1 Germany states: Baden-Württemberg

//1 Germany states: Bavaria, Bayern  Bavaria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 312 et passim; PERUGINI, Concordata 9; EGGER D.L. 42)  |  subst.  Bavarus, i m. (1652 TURS. 220, 320)  |  adj.  Bavaricus, a, um (1652 TURS. 404)  ► PERUGINI, Concordata 9; EGGER D.L. 49)

//1 Germany states: Brandenburg  adj.  Brandeburgicus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Brandenbrug."  ► Brandeburgensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 312)

//1 Germany states: Hesse  Hassia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hassia."  ► Hessia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 387)

//1 Germany states: Hessian  subst.  Hessiânus, i m. (1652 TURS. 403)  ► Hessaeus, i m. (1652 TURS. 387, 404)

//1 Germany states: Lower Saxony, Niedersachsen  Saxonia Inferior (1595 MERCATOR I, "Saxonia Inferior")

//1 Germany states: Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

//1 Germany states: North Rhine-Westphalia, Nordrhein-Westfalen

//1 Germany states: Rhineland-Palatinate, Rheinland-Pfalz  Palâtînâtus Rhêni (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae."  ► Palâtînâtus Inferior (1652 TURS. 316)

//1 Germany states: Saarland

//1 Germany states: Saxon  subst.  Saxo, onis m. (Eutr.; DANTE Vulg. El. 325)  |  adj.  Saxonicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 312 et passim1846 GROSSE title page)

//1 Germany states: Saxony, Sachsen  Saxonia, ae f. (Ven. Fort.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 306, 357; 26)

//1 Germany states: Saxony-Anhalt, Sachsen-Anhalt

//1 Germany states: Schleswig-Holstein

//1 Germany states: Thuringia, Thüringen  Thuringia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Thuringia"; 1652 TURS. 307)  ► Turingia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 314)

//1 Greece  Graecia, ae f.

//1 Greece cities: Athens  Athênae, arum f. pl.;  adj.  Athênensis, e

//1 Greece cities: Naupactus, Nafpaktos, Lepanto (site of 1571 battle)  Naupactus, i f. (CAES.; CIC.; 1652 TURS. 248)

//1 Greece cities: Thessaloniki, Thessalonica, Salonica  Thessalonîca, ae f. (CIC.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Graecia."  |  adj.  Thessalonîcensis, e

//1 Greece regions: Crete  Crêta, ae f. (CIC.; Verg.)  ► Candia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Candia."  |  adj.  Crêtensis, e (CIC.)  ► Candiânus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Candia")

//1 Greek  subst.  Graecus, i m.;  adj.  Graecus, a, um

//1 Greek language: Modern Greek  \\ lingua Graeca recentior (v. vulgaris)  ► lingua Neograeca*

//1 Hungary  Hungaria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 206 et passim)  ► Pannonia, ae f. (Melanchthon; 1652 TURS. 336)  |  subst.  Hungarus, i m. (DANTE Vulg. El.325; 1652 TURS. 191 et passim; EGGER S.L. 105)  |  adj.  Hungaricus, a, um (1652 TURS. 218 et passim)

//1 Hungary cities: Budapest  ► Budapestinum, i n.  ¶ WC publication locations.  ► Buda, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 252, 277: "Christianus exercitus ... Budam tentat, sed Pestum tantum oppositum oppidum capit."  ► Pestinum, i n.  ¶ WC publication locations.  ► Acincum, i n.  ¶ Amm. 30, 5, 13.  Graesse.  |  adj.  ► Budapestiensis, e  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ vi.

//1 Ireland  ► Hibernia, ae f.  ¶ CAES.  PLIN.  1595 MERCATOR II "Britannicae Insulae."  1674 MILTON XIII. 22.  1652 TURS. 328.  EGGER S.L. 31.  ► Irlandia, ae f.  ¶ 1595MERCATOR II "Scotia" map  1652 TURS. 387.

//1 Ireland cities: Dublin  Dubliniium, i n. (1652 TURS. 392)  ► Dublinum, i n. (1652 TURS. 387)  ►► Dublinium is much more common that Dublinum in the publication place of printed books (WC).

//1 Ireland: Northern Ireland, Ulster  Hultonia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 30)

//1 Irish  subst.  Hibernus, i m. (EGGER S.L. 89)  ► Irlandus, i m. (1652 TURS. 387)  |  adj.  Hibernicus, a, um, Irlandicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 393)

//1 Italian  subst.  Italus, i m.;  adj.  Italicus, a, um

//1 Italy  Italia, ae f.

//1 Italy cities: Anzio  Antium, i n. (CIC.; PLIN.)

//1 Italy cities: Bergamo  Bergomum, i n. (PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Bergomas, âtis (PLIN.)

//1 Italy cities: Bologna  Bononia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 85)  |  adj.  Bononiensis, e (DANTE Vulg. El. 326)

//1 Italy cities: Brescia  Brixia, ae f. (LIV.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 248)  ► Brescia, ae f.  (1595 MERCATOR I, "Brescia."  |  adj.  Brixiânus, a, um (LIV.; TAC.)

//1 Italy cities: Cagliari  adj.  Calaritanensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Sardinia")

//1 Italy cities: Catania  Catina, ae f. (CIC.; PLIN.)  ► Catania, ae f. (1652 TURS. 201)  |  adj.  Catinensis, e (CIC.)

//1 Italy cities: Ferrara  Ferraria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Lombardiae IIII"; 1652 TURS. 269)  |  adj.  Ferrariensis, e (1652 TURS. 248; 1843 TRAPPEN 28)

//1 Italy cities: Florence  ► Florentia, ae f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 323.  1674 MILTON XIII. 48.  EGGER S.L. 85)  |  adj.  ► Florentînus, a, um  ¶ DANTE Ep. 416.  1652 TURS. 214 et passim.

//1 Italy cities: Genoa, Genova  Genua, ae f. (LIV.; PLIN.)  |  adj.  Genuensis, e (Inscr.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Lombardiae III" map; 1652 TURS. 191)  ►► Inhabitants of the medieval and early-modern republic or city-state of Genoa are often called "Ligures" (e.g., 1652 TURS. 334, where "Ligur" and "Genuensis" are used as synonyms).

//1 Italy cities: Mantua, Mantova  Mantua, ae f. (Verg.; LIV.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 343)  |  adj.  Mantuânus, a, um (Stat.; 1652 TURS. 301, 343)

//1 Italy cities: Messina  Messâna, ae f. (CIC.; CAES.; 1652 TURS. 414)

//1 Italy cities: Milan  Mediolânum, i n. (PLIN.; TAC. 1652 TURS. 366)  |  adj.  Mediolânensis, e (CIC.; 1652 TURS. 240 et passim)

//1 Italy cities: Naples  Neapolis, is f.,  adj.  Neapolitânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 336)

//1 Italy cities: Padua, Padova  Patâvium, i n. (Verg.; SUET.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Patâvînus, a, um (MART. )  ► Padûanus, a, um (DANTE Vulg. El. 326)  ► Patâviensis, e (1595MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Italy cities: Palermo  Panormus, i f. (CIC.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Sicilia."  |  adj.  Panormitânus, a, um (CIC.)

//1 Italy cities: Parma  Parma, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Lombardiae IIII"; 1652 TURS. 248, 350)  |  adj.  Parmensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Lombardiae IIII" map; 1652 TURS. 349)

//1 Italy cities: Piacenza  Placentia, ae f. (CIC.; LIV.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Placentînus, a, um (CIC.; LIV.)

//1 Italy cities: Pisa  ► Pîsae, arum f. pl.  ¶ Verg.  Liv. |  adj.  ► Pisânus, a, um  ¶ Liv.  DANTE Vulg. El. 326.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 311.  1652 TURS. 248.

//1 Italy cities: Ravenna  Ravenna, ae f. (CAES.; CIC.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Ravennas, âtis (CIC.; PLIN.; DANTE Vulg. El. 326)

//1 Italy cities: Rimini  Arîminum, i n. (PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Arîminensis, e (HOR.; PLIN.)

//1 Italy cities: Rome  Rôma, ae f.;  adj.  Rômânus, a, um

//1 Italy cities: Rome: Basilica of St. John Lateran  Aedes Laterânensis (1652 TURS. 243)  ► Archibasilica Sanctissimi Salvatoris (official name)

//1 Italy cities: Rome: Castel Sant' Angelo, Mausoleum of Hadrian  Sancti Angeli Arx (1652 TURS. 230)  ► Sancti Angeli Castellum (1652 TURS. 379)  ► Arx Adriâna (1698Hofmann s.v. Savanarola)

//1  Italy cities: Rome: Castel Gandolfo Arx Gandulfi (Bacci IOE 132)

//1 Italy cities: Rome: Sistine Chapel  sacra aedes Xystîna (EGGER R.A. 134)  ► aedes Xystîna (EGGER R.A. 135)

//1 Italy cities: Rome: St. Peter's Basilica  (in Rome)  basilica Petriana (EGGER R.A. 126)  ► basilica Sancti Petri (EGGER R.A. 126)  ► Vaticanum Petri apostoli templum (1652 TURS.264)

//1 Italy cities: Rome: St. Peter's square or piazza  (in Rome)  area Petriana (EGGER R.A. 125)  ► area Sancti Petri

//1 Italy cities: Taranto  ► Tarentum n.  ¶ Cic.  Hor.  |  adj.  ► Tarentînus, a, um  ¶ Liv.  Plin.

//1 Italy cities: Tivoli  ► Tibur, uris n.  \ Verg.  \ Hor.  |  adj.  < Tiburs, urtis  \ Hor.  \ Liv.  < Tiburtînus, a, um  \ Plin. N.H.  \ Mart.

//1 Italy cities: Tivoli: Hadrian's villa  ► Hadriâni villa Tiburtîna  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 21: "in vestigiis Hadriani imperatoris Tiburtinae villae repraesentata."

//1 Italy cities: Trent, Trento  Tridentum, i n.;  adj.  Tridentînus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Italy cities: Turin  Augusta Taurinorum (EGGER D.L. 36; EGGER S.L. 59)  ► Taurînum, i n., (DANTE Vulg. El. 333; 1652 TURS. 357)  |  adj.  Taurinensis, e (EGGER S.L. 59)

//1 Italy cities: Urbino  Urbînum, i n. (TAC.)  |  adj.  Urbînas, âtis (CIC.; 1652 TURS. 335)

//1 Italy cities: Venice  ► Venetiae, arum f. pl.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 299: "Marcus Paulus, Venetiarum civis prudens et doctus."  1652 TURS. 222.  EGGER R.A. 81.  |  subst.  ►Venetus, i m.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 126.  1652 TURS. 222 et passim.  |  adj.  ► Venetus, a, um  ► Venetânus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 344.

//1 Italy cities: Verona  Vêrôna, ae f. (LIV.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Vêrônensis, e (Cato; PLIN.)

//1 Italy cities: Vicenza  Vicentia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Veronae Principatus")

//1 Italy ivers: Po  Padus, i m. (LIV.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 370)  |  adj.  Padânus, a, um (SID.)

//1 Italy language: Italian (language)  sermo Italicus, lingua Italica, sermo Etruscus, lingua Etrusca (cf. 1652 TURS. 217: "DANTEs Aldigerius poeta, carminibus Etruscis clarus."  |  in Italian Italicê, Etruscê

//1 Italy language: Latin

//1 Italy language: Romance language  ► lingua Rômânensis  ► lingua Rômânica  ¶ ThLL s.v. camisia in definition.  EGGER R.A. 112.  ► lingua Rômâna vulgaris  ¶ Schlegel.

//1 Italy language: Romance language: proto-Romance, late Vulgar Latin  ► lingua Rômâna  ¶ Hofman s.v. Meroveus, of Merovech, 5th c. founder of the Merovingian dynasty: "Conditor familiae Meroveus fuit, qui traiecto Rheno sedes cum suis Francis ad Axonam fluvium posuit. Inde permixtus Gallis, Romanam linguam cum Germanicâ, quâ Franci utebantur, in eam faciem corrupit quae hodie recepta est."

//1 Italy mountains: Apennines  Ap(p)ennînus, i m.

//1 Italy regions: Abruzzo  Aprutium, i n. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  ► Samnium, i n. (cf. 1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia": "Samnites" as synonym of "Abruzzo."  |  adj.  Aprucînus, a, um (1595MERCATOR I, "Abruzzo")

//1 Italy regions: Apulia, Puglia  Apulia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia"; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Apulus, a, um

//1 Italy regions: Basilicata  Basilicata, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia")

//1 Italy regions: Calabria  Calabria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  |  adj.  Calaber, bra, brum

//1 Italy regions: Campania, Campagna  Campânia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 341, 414)  |  adj.  Campânus, a, um, Campânicus, a, um

//1 Italy regions: Emilia Aemilia, ae f. (MART.; 1652 TURS. 248)

//1 Italy regions: Fruili  Forum Iulium (1595 MERCATOR I, "Friuli" map)  ► Regio Foroiuliensis

//1 Italy regions: Latium, Lazio  Latium, i n. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  |  adj.  Latius, a, um

//1 Italy regions: Liguria  Liguria, ae f. (PLIN.; TAC.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  |  subst.  Ligur, uris m. (CIC.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 334)  |  adj.  Ligusticus, a, um (VARR.; PLIN.; 1652TURS. 239)

//1 Italy regions: Lombardy  ► Langobardia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 47.  ► Longobardia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 192.  ► Lombardia, ae f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 328.  1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  DUCANGE s.v. parlatorium.  1826 LÜDERS 24.  |  subst.  ► Langobardus, i m.  ¶ TAC.  ► Longobardus, i m.  ¶ DANTE Ep. 420.  1652 TURS. 142 et passim.  ► Lombardus, i m.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 336.  ► Insuber, bris  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 126.  |  adj.  ► Langobardicus, a, um  ► Longobardicus, a, um   ¶ 1652 TURS. 143.  ► Lombardus, a, um  ¶DANTE Vulg. El. 329.  ► Insuber, bris

//1 Italy regions: Marches  Marchia Anconitâna (DANTE Vulg. El. 328; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  |  adj.  Anconitânus, a, um (DANTE Vulg. El. 328)

//1 Italy regions: Molise

//1 Italy regions: Papal States  Pontificia Dicio (1652 TURS. 142 et passim)  ► Civitas Pontificia (EGGER R.A. 65: "cum alma Urbs adhuc esset caput Civitatis Pontificiae."  ► Patrimonium Ecclesiae (1652 TURS. 335: "ducatus Urbinas Urbano summo pontifici ... traditur, quâ onatione Patrimonium Ecclesiae valde et augetur et continuo tramite Mediterraneo ad Adriaticum mare continuatur."  ► Status Ecclesiasticus (1652 TURS. 385)

//1 Italy regions: Piedmont  (regions in Italy, southeast US)  ¶ Pedemontium, i n.  |  adj.  ► Pedemontânus, a, um  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Lombardiae III" map.  1652 TURS. 333, 360.  1752 STUMPF 27.  EGGER D.L. 47.

//1 Italy regions: Romagna  Romaniola, ae f. (DANTE Ep. 415)  ► Romandiola, ae f. (DANTE Vulg. El. 328; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  |  adj.  Romandialus, a, um (DANTE Vulg. El.328)

//1 Italy regions: Sardinia  Sardinia, ae f.;  adj.  Sardus, a, um

//1 Italy regions: Sicily  Sicilia, ae f. (CAES.; CIC.; PLIN.)  |  subst.  Siculus, i m. (CIC.; 1652 TURS. 258)  |  adj.  Siculus, a, um (VARR.; CIC.; LIV.; TAC.; 1652 TURS. 213)  ► Siciliensis, e (CIC.; SUET.)

//1 Italy regions: Sicily: King of the Two Sicilies  Utriusque Siciliae Regnum (cf. 1652 TURS. 235: "utriusque Siciliae rex")

//1 Italy regions: Tuscan  subst.  ► Tuscus, i m.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 328.  EGGER R.A. 73, 129.  ► Etruscus, i  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 126.  |  adj.  ► Tuscus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 144. ► Etruscus, a, um  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 38: "Hetruscam dicionem."  ► Tuscânus, a, um  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 331.

//1 Italy regions: Tuscany  ► Etruria, ae f.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 92 et passim.  1674 MILTON XIII. 48.  1652 TURS. 212 et passim.  EGGER R.A. 134.  ► Tuscia, ae f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg.El. 323.  1595 MERCATOR I, "Thuscia" map.  ► Toscania, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 342.

//1 Italy regions: Tyrol  Tirolis, is f., Comitatus Tirolensis (1652 TURS. 317)  |  adj.  Tirolensis, e (1652 TURS. 311)  ►► Posui genus femininum quia inveni in libri titulo (apud WC) "Germanicae Tyrolis."

//1 Italy regions: Umbria  Umbria, ae f.;  adj.  Umber, bra, brum

//1 Italy regions: Veneto  regio Veneta

//1 Italy regions: Venezia Giulia, Julian March  Marca Iulia 

//1 Italy rivers: Tiber  Tîberis, is m.;  adj.  Tîberînus, a, um

//1 Luxemburg  Lucemburgum, i n. (1652 TURS. 352)  |  adj.  Lucemburgensis, e (1652 TURS. 218)

//1 Malta  Melita, ae f. (CIC.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 250)  |  adj.  Melitensis, e (1652 TURS. 219)

//1 Netherlands cities: Amsterdam  ► Amstelodamum, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 393.  1843 TRAPPEN 27.  EGGER D.L. 25.  |  adj.  Amstelodamensis, i  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiii.  1843TRAPPEN 131.

//1 Netherlands cities: Arnhem  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Breda  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Dordrecht, Dort  Dordrâcum, i n. (1652 TURS. 313; 1843 TRAPPEN 27)

//1 Netherlands cities: Eindhoven  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Groningen  ►   |  adj.  ► Groningensis, e  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 27.

//1 Netherlands cities: Harlem, Haarlem  ► Harlemum, i n.  |  adj.  ► Harlemensis, e ¶ 1784 THUNBERG title page.  1843 TRAPPEN 83)

//1 Netherlands cities: Leiden  Lugdûnum Batavôrum (1595 MERCATOR I, "Belgii Inferioris Tabula"; 1843 TRAPPEN 61)  ► Leida, ae f. (1652 TURS. 294)  |  adj.  Leidensis, is (1652TURS. 293)  ► Lugdunobatavus, a, um (Boerhaave, title page)  ► Lugdunensis Batavus 1843 TRAPPEN 32)  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Maastricht  Traiectum ad Mosam

//1 Netherlands cities: Nijmegen  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Rotterdam  Roterodamum, i n. (1652 TURS. 395; 1843 TRAPPEN 27)

//1 Netherlands cities: The Hague  Haga Comitis (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hollandia"; 1652 TURS. 373; 1843 TRAPPEN 27)  ► Haga, ae f. (1652 TURS. 309)  |  adj.  Hagânus, a, um 1843TRAPPEN title page)

//1 Netherlands cities: Tilburg  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Utrecht  Traiectum, i n. (1652 TURS. 263)  ► Traicectum ad Rhênum 1843 TRAPPEN 30)  |  adj.  Traiectensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Geldria."  ► Traiectinus, a, um 1843 TRAPPEN title page)

//1 Netherlands regions: Frisia, Friesland  Frisia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Frisia")

//1 Netherlands regions: Gelderland, Guelders  Geldria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Geldria")

//1 Netherlands regions: Holland  Hollandia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hollandia"; 1652 TURS. 260)

//1 Netherlands regions: Zeeland  Zelandia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Index Tabularum Belgii"; 1652 TURS. 260)  |  subst.  Zelandus, i m. (cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 42: Zeelandus)  |  adj. Zelandicus, a, um (cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 84: Zeelandicus)

//1 Netherlands, Holland  ► Batâvia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 436.  GESENIUS ix.  1784 THUNBERG xvii.  ► Hollandia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 389.  1698 HOFMANN s.v. zigeuni.  1843TRAPPEN 26.  ► Nederlandia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 25.  ► Belgium Septentrionale  ¶ Alexander Suerman, Specimen historico-medicum de cholerae Asiaticae itinere per Belgium septentrionale, annis 1832-1834 (Utrecht, 1835). 

//1 Netherlands: Dutch  adj.  ► Batâvicus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 324; 366.  ► Hollandicus, a, um  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiv.  1784 DUCRUE 265.  ► Batâvus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS.293.  1826 LÜDERS 27.  1843 TRAPPEN 46.  ► Nederlandicus, a, um  ¶ EGGER D.L. 24.  ► Neerlandicus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 38.

//1 Netherlands: Dutch (language)  ► lingua Batâvica  ¶  ► lingua Hollandica  ¶  ► lingua Belgica  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiv.  |  in Dutch  ► Batâvicê  ¶  ► Hollandicê  ¶  ►Belgicê

//1 Netherlands: Dutch Republic (1581-1794), United Provinces  ► Foederâtum Belgicum  ¶ Cf. 1652 TURS. 337: Confoederati Belgae, of the inhabitants of the United Provinces.  ►Provinciae Unîtae Belgii  ¶ 1652 TURS. 374.

//1 Netherlands: Dutchman  ► Batâvus, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 280 et passim.  1843 TRAPPEN 32 et passim.  ► Hollandus, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 281; 390.  1784 THUNBERG xvii.

//1 Poland  Polonia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia"; 1652 TURS. 227 et passim1811 PALLAS 3)

//1 Poland cities: Gdańsk, Danzig  ► Gedânum, i n.  ¶ EGGER N.L.   ► Dantiscum, i n.  |  adj.  ► Gedânensis, e  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 44.  PERUGINI, Concordata 34.  ►Dantiscânus, a, um

//1 Poland cities: Katowice  ► /

//1 Poland cities: Krakow, Cracow  Cracovia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia."  |  adj.  Cracoviensis, e (1652 TURS. 228)

//1 Poland cities: Łódź  ►  /

//1 Poland cities:  Poznań  Posnania, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia")

//1 Poland cities: Warsaw  Varsavia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 34)  ► Varsovia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 317)  |  adj.  Varsaviensis, e (1652 TURS. 354; EGGER S.L. 82)

//1 Poland cities: Wrocław, Breslau  ► Vratislavia, ae f.  ¶  |  adj.  ► Vratislaviensis, e  ¶ Ducange s.v. cifrae.

//1 Poland regions: Silesia  ► Silesia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia."  1652 TURS. 357.  PERUGINI, Concordata 43: "Alta Silesia."  |  subst.  ► Silesius, i m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF title page.  |  adj.  ► Silesius, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 312.

//1 Poland rivers: Oder  Odera, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Brandeburg")

//1 Poland rivers: Vistula  Vistula, ae f. (PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Pole  subst.  ► Polonus, i m.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 124.  1674 MILTON XIII. 44.  1652 TURS. 276 et passim.  1811 PALLAS 49.  EGGER S.L. 57.

//1 Polish  adj.  Polonicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 227; PERUGINI, Concordata 31; EGGER S.L. 15)

//1 Portugal  ► Lûsitânia, ae f.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 18.  1652 TURS. 250.  1794 RUIZ ii.  EGGER S.L. 59.  ► Portugallia, ae f.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 22; 42; used interchangeably withLusitania.  1784 DUCRUE 258, 266.  ► Portugalia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 367.  ►► Lusitania is somewhat more common than Portugal(l)ia in printed books (WC).

//1 Portugal cities: Lisbon  ► Olisîpo, ônis m.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 8.  ► Olysippo, ônis m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 20.  1652 TURS. 194.  ► Ulyssipo, ônis m.  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 221.  |  adjOlisîpônensis, e  ¶ EGGER S.L. 10.

//1 Portugal cities: Porto

//1 Portugal regions: Algarve  Algarbia, ae f. (1698 Hofmann, "Nomenclator")

//1 Portuguese  subst.  ► Lûsitânus, i m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 32.  1652 TURS. 257.  1784 DUCRUE 220.  |  adj.  ► Lûsitânicus, a, um  ►  Lûsitânus, a, um  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 258: "duae cymbae Lusitanae."  EGGER S.L. 9.  ► Portugallicus, a, um /

//1 rivers: Danube  ► Hister, tri m. (of the lower part)  ► Dânuvius, ii m. (of the upper part)  ¶ Caes.  Ov.  Tac.  |  adj.  ► Dânuvînus, a, um  ¶ Cf. 1698 Hofmann s.v. zigeuni: "in circum-Danubianas regiones."

//1 rivers: Rhine  Rhênus, i.  |  adj.  Rhênânus, a, um (SID.)  ► Rhênensis (1540 VIVES Exer. 353: vinum Rhenense)

//1 Romania  ► Rômânia, ae f.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ v.  ► Dâcorômânia, ae f.

//1 Romania cities: Bucharest  adj.  Bucarestiensis, e (EGGER R.A. 100)

//1 Romania regions: Transylvania  Transilvania, ae f. (1652 TURS. 260 et passim)  |  subst.  Transilvânus, i m. (1652 TURS. 314, 399)

//1 Romania regions: Wallachia  Vallachia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Wallachia"; 1652 TURS. 236: "Dacia olim fuit")

//1 seas: Adriatic Sea  mare Hadriâticum (v. Hadriânum)  ► Hadria, ae m., sinus Adriâticus (1652 TURS. 344)

//1 seas: Mediterranean (adj.):  Mediterranean peoples  gentes Mare Internum accolentes (EGGER R.A. 92)  |  Mediterranean diet  victus Mare Internum accolentium proprius

//1 seas: Mediterranean Sea  Mare Internum (EGGER S.L. 105; EGGER R.A. 93)  ► Mare Mediterraneum (ISID. Orig. 13, 16; 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa"; 1652 TURS. 303 et passim)

//1 seas: Mediterranean: Aegean Sea  Aegaeum Mare (CIC.; LIV.; 1652 TURS. 203)

//1 seas: North Sea  Mare Germanicum (1595 MERCATOR I,  "Boulogne" map)

//1 Slav  subst.  Sclavo, onis m. (DANTE Vulg. El. 325)  ► Sclavus, i m.

//1 Slavic  adj.  Sclavicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 137)

//1 Slovakia  Slovacia, ae f. 

//1 Slovakia cities: Bratislava  Posonium, i n. (1652 TURS. 313)  |  adj.  Posoniensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hungaria")

//1 Spain  ► Hispânia, ae f.  ► Hispâniae, arum f. pl.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 14, in salutation of letter: "Philippo Quarto Hispaniarum regi."

//1 Spain cities: Aranjuez  |  palace of Aranjuez  ► villa regia Aranguesiâna  ¶ 1794 RUIZ iii. 

//1 Spain cities: Avila  Abula, ae f.

//1 Spain cities: Barcelona  Barcino, ônis f. (PLIN.; Aus.; 1652 TURS. 307)  ► Barcelona, ae f. (1652 TURS. 389)  |  adj.  ► Barcinônensis, e  ¶ Aus.  1652 TURS. 358.  1794 RUIZ ii. ►► Barcino is almost always used for the publication location of printed books (WC).

//1 Spain cities: Barcelona: Montserrat  ► Montiserratum, i n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ vii.

//1 Spain cities: Cádiz  ► Gâdes, ium f. pl.  ¶ CIC.  LIV.  PLIN.  1794 RUIZ iv.  |  adj.  ► Gâdîtânus, a, um  ¶ CIC. PLIN.  1652 TURS. 331.

//1 Spain cities: Cordoba  ► Corduba, ae f.  ¶ CAES.  1652 TURS. 330.  1794 RUIZ i.  |  adj.  ► Cordubensis, e  ¶ PLIN.

//1 Spain cities: El Escorial  ► Scôriâle, is n.  ► Escuriâle, is n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 270: "in monasterio Escuriali."  |  adj.  ► Escurialensis, e  ¶ 1794 RUIZ iv: "in bibliotheca Escurialensi."

//1 Spain cities: Girona, Gerona  Gerunda, ae (PRUD.)  ► Girona, ae f. (1652 TURS. 390)  |  adj.  Gerundensis, is (PLIN.)

//1 Spain cities: Granada  ► Granata, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 244.  |  adj.  ► Granatensis, e  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v.

//1 Spain cities: León  Legio, ônis f. (1652 TURS. 141)

//1 Spain cities: Lerida, Lleida  Ilerda, ae f. (CIC.; HOR.)  ► Lerida, ae f. (1652 TURS. 401)  |  adj.  Ilerdensis, e (PLIN.)

//1 Spain cities: Madrid  ► Matritum, i n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ ii.  Madritum, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 288, 331.  1784 DUCRUE 265.  |  adj.  ► Matritensis, e  ¶ 1794 RUIZ iv.  ►► Matritum is much more common than Madritum in published books (WC).

//1 Spain cities: Palma de Mallorca  Palma, ae f. (PLIN. 3, 77)

//1 Spain cities: Pamplona  Pompelôna, ae f. (1652 TURS. 153; 1698 Hofmann)  ► Pompelon, ônis (1698 Hofmann "Nomenclator"; cf. Strabo 3, 4, 10:  Πομπελων )  ► Pompeiopolis, is f. (1698 Hofmann "Nomenclator"; cf. Strabo 3, 4, 10:  Πομπηιοπολις )

//1 Spain cities: Salamanca  Salmantica, ae f. (1652 TURS. 335; DUCANGE s.v. Mosarabes)

//1 Spain cities: San Sebastian  Sebastianopolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 34)

//1 Spain cities: Segovia

//1 Spain cities: Seville  ► Hispalis, is f.  ¶ CAES.  PLIN.  1794 RUIZ iii.  |  adj.  ► Hispalensis, e  ¶ PLIN.  1652 TURS. 331.  1794 RUIZ ii.

//1 Spain cities: Toledo  Tolêtum, i n.  ¶ DUCANGE s.v. Mosarabes.  |  adj.  Tolêtânus, a, um (DUCANGE s.v. Mosarabes1652 TURS. 307)

//1 Spain cities: Valencia  ► Valentia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 349)  |  adj.  ► Valentînus, a, um  ¶ 1794 RUIZ ii.

//1 Spain cities: Valladolid  ► Valdolîtum, i n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ vii.

//1 Spain regions: Andalusia, Andalucía  ► Baetica, ae f.  ¶ PLIN.  TAC.  1652 TURS. 203; 335.  ► Andalicia, ae f.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 42.  |  subst.  ► Baeticus, i m.  ¶ PLIN. Ep.  |  adj.  ► Baeticus, a, um  ¶ TAC.  MART.

//1 Spain regions: Aragon  Aragonia, ae f. (DANTE Vulg. El. 326; 1652 TURS. 212, 395)  |  subst.  Arago, onis m. (DANTE Monarchia 363)  |  adj.  Aragonensis, e (1652 TURS. 215)

//1 Spain regions: Ballearic Islands  insulae Baliâres, Baliâres, um f. pl. (PLIN. 3, 76)  |  adj.  Baliaricus, a, um

//1 Spain regions: Ballearic: Ibiza  Ebusus, i f. (LIV.; PLIN.)  |  adj.  Ebusitânus, a, um (PLIN.)

//1 Spain regions: Ballearic: Mallorca, Majorca  Baliaris Maior (PLIN. 3, 77)  ► Maiorica, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa")

//1 Spain regions: Ballearic: Menorca, Minorca  Minorica, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa")

//1 Spain regions: Basque  subst.  Vasco, onis m. (PLIN.; JUV.; DANTE Ep. 434; 1652 TURS. 143, 339)  |  adj.  Vasconicus, a, um (PaulNol.; EGGER S.L. 29; EGGER S.L. 45)

//1 Spain regions: Basque country  Vasconia, ae f. (PaulNol.; 1652 TURS. 143, 322)

//1 Spain regions: Castile  Castella, ae f. (DANTE Monarchia 363; 1652 TURS. 178 et passim)  ► Castillia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 374)  |  adj.  Castellânus, a, um (DUCANGE s.v. Mosarabes) ► Castulonensis, e (1652 TURS. 230: "Ferdinandus Castulonensis rex," et passim)

//1 Spain regions: Catalonia  Catalonia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 362 et passim)  ► Catalaunia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 307, 368)  ► Catalania, ae f. (1652 TURS. 369)  |  subst.  Catalanus, i m. (1652TURS. 358, 369)  |  adj.  Catalonicus, a, um  (1652 TURS. 383)  ► Catalaunensis, e (1652 TURS. 400)

//1 Spain regions: Extramadura

//1 Spain regions: Galicia  ► Gallaecia, ae f.  ¶ Plin.  1674 MILTON XIII. 42.  |  subst.  ► Gallaecus, i m.  ¶ Plin.   |  adj.  ► Gallaecus, a, um  ¶ Plin. 

//1 Spain regions: Navarre  Navarra, ae f. (1652 TURS. 153)  |  subst.  Navarrus, i m. (1652 TURS. 238)

//1 Spain regions: Zaragoza, Saragossa   Caesaragusta, ae f.

//1 Spain rivers: Guadalquivir  Baetis, is m. (PLIN.; MART. ) 

//1 Spain rivers: Tagus, Tajo, Tejo  ► Tagus, i m.  ¶ Liv.  Plin.  1674 MILTON XIII. 22.

//1 Spain: Gilbraltar  Calpê, ês f. (PLIN.; SEN.)  |  adj.  Calpêtânus, a, um (Avien.)

//1 Spain: Gilbraltar: Straits of Gibraltar  ► fretum Gaditanum  ¶ PLIN.  1674 MILTON XIII. 22.  1652 TURS. 324.  ► fretum Herculeum  ¶ Sil.  1698 Hofmann s.v. Fezza.  ►► Cf.Columnae Herculis (PLIN.) or Herculeae (1652 TURS. 291) of the promontories flanking the straits. 

//1 Spanish  subst.  Hispânus, i m.;  adj.  Hispânus, a, um (LIV.; PLIN.; MART. )  ► Hispânicus, a, um (VITR.; SUET.)

//1 Spanish (language)  ► sermo Hispân(ic)us  ► lingua Hispân(ic)a  |  in Spanish  ► Hispanicê  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i: "liber ... Hispanice conversus."  |  speak Spanish  ► Hispânê loqui  ¶ Enn. An. 495, of the speech of ancient Spain.  ► Hispânicê loqui

//1 Swiss  subst.  Helvêtius, i m. (CAES.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia"; 1652 TURS. 238, 367)  |  adj.  Helvêtius, a, um (CAES.)  ► Helvêticus, a, um (CAES.)

//1 Switzerland  ► Helvetia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  1826 LÜDERS 26.  EGGER D.L. 50.

//1 Switzerland cities: Basel  Basilêa, ae f. (Amm.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia"; 1652 TURS. 240)  |  adj.  Basiliensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Burdungia"; 1652 TURS. 240, 347)

//1 Switzerland cities: Bern  ► Berna, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  |  adj.  ► Bernas, âtis  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  1652 TURS. 328.  ► Bernensis, e  ¶ 1826LÜDERS 26.

//1 Switzerland cities: Geneva  Genâva, ae f. (CAES.; EGGER S.L. 33)  ► Genêva, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  ► Aurêli(ân)a Allobrogum f. (WC publication locations)  |  adj. Genâvensis, e (Inscr.)

//1 Switzerland cities: Lausanne  Lausanna, ae f.;  adj.  Lausannensis, e (PERUGINI, Concordata 51)

//1 Switzerland cities: Luzern  Lucerna, ae f. (Graesse1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  |  adj.  Lucernas, âtis (1595 MERCATOR I, "Argow")

//1 Switzerland cities: Zurich  ► Turicum, i n.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 93.  EGGER N.L. citing Cod. Th.  ► Tigurum, i n.  |  adj.  ► Turicensis, e  ¶ Inscr.  1826 LÜDERS 26.  EGGER N.L.  ►Tigurînus, a, um  ¶ CAES.  1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."

//1 Switzerland regions: Graubünden, Grisons  Rhaetia, ae f. (TAC.; 1652 TURS. 309: "in Rhaetia quoque, sive apud Grisones," et passim)  ► Grisonum regio (1652 TURS. 309)  |  subst. Rhaetus, i m. (PLIN.; LIV.; 1652 TURS. 317, 324: "Rhaeti sive Grisones."  ► Griso, onis m. (1652 TURS. 309, 317)  |  adj.  Rhaeticus, a, um (PLIN.; TAC.)

//1 Switzerland regions: Valais  Valêsia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  |  adj.  Valêsiânus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia")

//11 /Scandinavia  Scandinavia, ae f. (PLIN.; DANTE Ep. 420; EGGER S.L. 19)

//11 /Scandinavia: Lappland  Lapponia, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 47)  ► Lappia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Polus Arcticus" map)

//11 Denmark  ► Dania, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  1652 TURS. 244.  1826 LÜDERS 13.  EGGER R.A. 73.

//11 Denmark cities: Copenhagen  ► Hafnia, ae f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 14.  ► Havnia, ae f.  ► Hauniae, ae f.  |  adj.  ► Hafnensis, e  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Islandia."  1826 LÜDERS15.

//11 Denmark: Dane  subst.  ► Danus, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 200 et passim.  1826 LÜDERS 13.  EGGER D.L. 39.

//11 Denmark: Danish  adj.  ► Danicus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 340.  1843 TRAPPEN 27.

//11 Finland  Finlandia, ae f., Fennia, ae f.;  subst.  Finlandus, i m., Fennus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 46)  ► Finnonius, i m. (1652 TURS. 272)

//11 Greenland  Groenlandia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europe"; EGGER D.L. 22)  ► Terra Viridis (EGGER D.L. 22)

//11 Iceland  Islandia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Islandia"; EGGER S.L. 19)

//11 Norway  Norvegia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa"; 1652 TURS. 244; EGGER S.L. 19)  |  subst.  Norvegus, i m.;  adj.  Norvegicus, a, um (1811 PALLAS 30)  ►► Norvegiensis (EGGER S.L. 19)

//11 Norway cities: Bergen  ► Bergae, arum f. pl.  ¶ Holberg.  ► Berga, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 19.

//11 Norway cities: Oslo  ► Osloa, ae f.  ¶ Henning Mørland, ed., Oribasius Latinus (Oslo: A. W. Brøgger, 1940), title page.  |  adj.  ► Osoloensis, e  ¶ Henning Mørland, ed., Oribasius Latinus (Oslo: A. W. Brøgger, 1940), title page: "Symbloae Osloenses")

//11 Swede  subst.  ► Suecus, i m./ 1674 MILTON XIII. 54.  1652 TURS. 337 et passim.  1843 TRAPPEN 26.  ► Suetus, i m.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 22.

//11 Sweden  ► Suecia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 226 et passim.  1794 RUIZ iv.  1843 TRAPPEN 26.  ► Suetia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 244.  EGGER D.L. 18.  ►► SuecusSuecia is the ordinary spelling; SuetusSuetia is much rarer (see WC titles).

//11 Sweden cities: Stockholm  ► Holmia, ae f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v.  EGGER D.L. 29.  ► Stockholmia, ae f.  ►► Holmia is much more common than Stockholmia in printed books (WC).

//11 Sweden cities: Upasala  ► Upsala, ae f.  ¶  |  adj.  ► Upsaliensis, e  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxi.

//11 Swedish  adj.  Suecicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 276; 1843 TRAPPEN 27)  ► Sueticus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 27 )

//12 /Balkan mountains  ► Haemus, i m.  ¶ Liv.  Hor.  Plin.  ► Balcânus, i m.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ ii: "Calida atque saxosa declivia Balcani, quae circa Kostinbrod et Bučina ad meridiem spectant, perlustravimus."

//12 /Balkan peninsula, Balkans  ► paeninsula Balcânica  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ i.  ► Balcania, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 65.

//12 /Baltic Sea  mare Balticum 1843 TRAPPEN 52; EGGER S.L. 30)  ► mare Suebicum (Tacitus, S.L. 30)  ► mare Balthicum (1811 PALLAS viii)

//12 Albania  Albânia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Graecia"; 1652 TURS. 240)  |  subst.  Albânus, i m. (1652 TURS. 137)  |  adj.  Albânicus, a, um

//12 Bosnia  Bosnia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Sclavonia"; EGGER S.L. 65)  ► Bosnea, ae f. (1652 TURS. 280)  ► Bosina (1652 TURS. 244)  ► Bossina, ae f. (1652 TURS. 243)  ► Boscina, ae f. (1652 TURS. 236)

//12 Bosnia cities: Sarajevo  Seraium, i n. (EGGER S.L. 65)

//12 Bulgaria  Bulgaria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Walachia"; EGGER S.L. 59)  |  subst.  Bulgarus, i m. (1652 TURS. 226; EGGER D.L. 13)  |  adj.  Bulgaricus, a, um (1652 TURS. 225)

//12 Bulgaria cities: Plovdiv, Philippopoli  ► Philippopolis, is f.  ¶ Liv.  Plin.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ iii.  ► Trimontium, i n.  ¶ Plin.  |  adj.  ► Philippopolensis, e  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝiii.

//12 Bulgaria cities: Sofia  ► Serdica, a f.  ¶ Cassiod.  ► Sophia, ae f.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ ii.  |  adj.  ► Serdicensis, e ¶ Cassiod.  ► Serdicênus, a, um ¶ Cassiod.

//12 Croatia  Croâtia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Sclavonia"; 1652 TURS. 266, 303)  |  subst.  Croâta, ae m. (EGGER R.A. 61)  |  adj.  Croâticus, a, um

//12 Croatia cities: Zagreb  adj.  Zagrabiensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hungaria")

//12 Croatia regions: Dalmatia  Dalmatia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Sclavonia")

//12 Croatia regions: Istria  Histria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Friuli" map)

//12 Estonia  Estonia, ae f. (PERUGINI, Concordata 57)  |  subst.  Esthus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 37)

//12 Latvia  Lettonia, ae f. (PERUGINI, Concordata 1; EGGER N.L.)  ► Latvia, ae f. (PERUGINI, Concordata 1)  |  subst.  Letto, onis m. (EGGER N.L.)  |  adj.  Lettonicus, a, um (EGGERN.L.)  |  in Latvian  Lettonicê

//12 Latvia: Riga  Riga, ae f. (1652 TURS. 288; PERUGINI, Concordata 1)  |  adj.  Rigensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//12 Latvian  subst.  Lettus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 37)

//12 Lithuania  Lituânia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 227, 263; Bonon. Acad. I, 294; EGGER N.L.)  ► Lithuânia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia"; 1811 PALLAS 3; PERUGINI, Concordata 57)  | subst.  Lituânus, i m., Lithuânus, i m. (PERUGINI, Concordata 2)  |  adj.  Lituânus, a, um, Lithuânus, a, um, Lithuânicus, a, um (PERUGINI, Concordata 60)

//12 Lithuania: Vilnius  Vilna, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia."  |  adj.  Vilnensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia"; PERUGINI, Concordata 37)

//12 Macedonia  ► Macedonia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Graecia."  1891 VELENOVSKÝ i.

//12 Montenegro  Mons Niger, Nigrimontium, i n.;  adj.  Nigrimontânus, a, um 

//12 Montenegro  Nigrimontium, i n.;  adj.  Nigrimontânus, a, um

//12 Serbia  ► Servia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Walachia" map.  1652 TURS. 236.  ► Serbia, ae f.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ ii.  |  subst.  ► Servius, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 191.  |  adj.  ►Serbicus, a, um  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ iii.

//12 Serbia cities: Belgrade  ► Belgradum, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 241.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ iv.  ► Singidûnum, i n.  ¶ Anton.  |  adj.  ► Singidûnensis, e  ¶ Aur. Vict.

//12 Slovenia  Slovenia, ae f., Sclavonia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Sclavonia."  |  adj.  Slovenicus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 66)

//12 Yugoslavia  Iugoslavia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 65)

//13 Armenia  ► Armenia, ae f.  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 11 et passim.  |  subst.  ► Armenius, i m.  ¶ Ov.  MART.  1652 TURS. 239.  |  adj.  ► Armenius, a, um  ¶VARR.   ► Armeniacus, a, um  ¶ PLIN.

//13 Belarus, B(y)elorussia  Russia Alba (EGGER D.L. 50)  |  subst.  Russus Albus (PERUGINI, Concordata 44)

//13 Georgia (nation)  ► Geôrgia, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 312.  EGGER N.L.  |  subst.  ► Geôrgiânus, i m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 312 et passim.  1652 TURS. 132.  1811PALLAS 37.  EGGER N.L.   |  adj.  ► Geôrgiânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//13 Moldavia  Moldavia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Walachia" map; 1652 TURS. 267)

//13 Russia  ► Russia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  1652 TURS. 227 et passim.  ► Rossia, ae f.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS vii.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ v. 

//13 Russia cities: Moscow  Mosqua, ae f. (1811 PALLAS iii, 38)  ► Moscua, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 25)

//13 Russia cities: Smolensk  Smolenskum, i n. (1652 TURS. 290)

//13 Russia cities: St. Petersburg, Leningrad  Petropolis, is f. (1811 PALLAS 16)  |  adj.  Petropolitanus, a, um 1843 TRAPPEN 25; GAUSS VI, 40; 1811 PALLAS iv)

//13 Russia cities: St. Petersburg: Winter Palace, Hermitage  Aula Petropolitâna 1843 TRAPPEN 25)

//13 Russia peoples: Samoyed  Samogedus, i m. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  ► Samoiedus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 36)

//13 Russia regions: Siberia  Sibiria, ae f. (1811 PALLAS vi; EGGER S.L. 18, 49)  |  adj.  Sibiricus, a, um (1811 PALLAS vii)  ► Sibirianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 17, 49)

//13 Russia rivers: Dnieper  Borysthenes, is m. (PLIN.; Curt.; 1652 TURS. 337)  |  adj.  Borysthenius, a, um (Ov.)

//13 Russia rivers: Don  Tanais, is m. (HOR.; PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa"; 1652 TURS. 207)  |  adj.  Tanaîticus, a, um (SID.)

//13 Russia rivers: Volga  Rha (indecl.) (Amm.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  ► Volga, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 31)

//13 Russia: Muscovy (Russian state of 14th-17th centuries)  Moscovia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 264 et passim)  ► Moschovia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 302)  |  subst.  Moscus, i (1652 TURS.263, 347)  ► Moschus, i (1652 TURS. 270, 294)  ► Moscovîta, ae m. (1652 TURS. 284)  |  adj.  Muscovîticus, a, um (1652 TURS. 301)

//13 Russia: Ural Mountains  Uralense Iugum (1811 PALLAS viii)

//13 Russian  subst.  ► Russus, i m.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 38.  ► Rossus, i m.  ► Ruthênus, i m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 50: "Ruthenorum vero provincia maxima ad polum arcticum sita est." 1595 MERCATOR II "Europe."  1698 HOFMANN: "Ruteni etim Russi nonnumquam dici solent."  |  adj.  ► Russicus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 302.  EGGER D.L. 28.  ► Rossicus, a, um  ¶ 1811PALLAS v.  ► Ruthenicus, a, um  ¶ 1811 PALLAS xii. 

//13 Russian (language)  ► lingua Russica  ¶   |  in Russian  ► Russice  ¶  ► Rossice  ¶ PALLAS 15.

//13 Ukraine  Ucraina, ae f.;  adj.  Ucrainus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 79)

//13 Ukraine regions: Crimea  Chersonêsus (v. Cherronêsus) Taurica (Plin.; Pallas vii);  adj.  Tauricus, a, um (Turs. 301: "facta a chano Tartarorum Tauricorum irruptione in Russiam"), Crimensis, e Turs. 302: "Nogaiensi et Crimensi Tartarorum provinciis")

//13 Ukraine: Kiev Kiovia (de arte poetica 1705, paper at APA2014)

//2 /Asia  ► Asia, ae f.  ¶ PLIN.  OROS. 1, 2.  1595 MERCATOR II, "Orbis Terrae."  ► India Orientalis  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 151, of coconut palm: "Provenit haec arbor copiosa in Indiâ Orientali."  1826 LÜDERS 27.  ► Indiae Orientales (f. pl.)  ¶ 1652 TURS. 374.  ► India, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 435, introducing the section of his work encompassing Japan and the circle of lands around the Indian Ocean (Indonesia, the Philippines, South Asia, Yemen, and East Africa): "Modo computabo vobis, in hoc tertio libro huius operis, mirabilia quae sunt in Indiâ." 1843 TRAPPEN 38: "Batavi ... in plurimis Indiae regionibus stationes mercatorias habuerint."  ► Indiae, arum f. pl.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 326: "Franciscum ex eadem societate apostolum Indiarum," epithet of St. Francis Xavier.  Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 31: "Indiae Neerlandicae," of Dutch East Indies.  Cf. 1794 RUIZ iii: "arboribus stirpibusque ... ex vastissimis regionibus in utrâque Indiâ transmissis," where "utraque India" refers to America and Asia.  ►► India Orientalis, or India simply, when used in its larger sense, and in reference to the East (rather than the Americas), denotes most often that part of Asia east of Iran, including Indonesia and the Philippines.  (In the Middle Ages, as in antiquity, it could include Arabia and East Africa as well, the vital sea-ways of the India Ocean providing a natural defining principle for the geographical concept.)  On the polyvalence of the term in Latin, see discussion under the entry India.

//2 /Asian  ► Asiaticus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 20.  1811 PALLAS viii.  ► Indicus, a, um  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiii: "Cum cupidinem aliquando significassem Indicas hucusque parum cognitas adeundi terras, me ... summis nonnullis Amstelodami viris îdem professor commendavit, ut ... in Iaponiam navigare mihi liceret."

//2 /Far East  Oriens Extrêmus (PERUGINI, Concordata 51)  ► Oriens Ultimus (1652 TURS. 263; cf. 1652 TURS. 250: "decessit Emmanuel rex Lusitania ... ultimâ orientis orâ subactâ nobilis")

//2 Afghanistan  Afganistania, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 52)  |  Afghan  Afghanistanianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 29)

//2 Afghanistan cities: Kabul  Cabura, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 29)

//2 Bangladesh  ► Bangladêsa, ae f.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  ► Bengâla, ae f.  ¶  ► Bengâla Orientâlis  |  adj.  ► Bangladêsânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 41.  EGGER N.L.  ► Bengâlensis Orientâlis   ►► The name Bangladesh is simply a Bengali name for Bengal; but Bangladesh is actually the eastern portion of the region traditionally called "Bengal" (in Latin Bengala), the western part being a state within India (West Bengal).

//2 Bangladesh cities: Dacca  Dacca, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 7)

//2 Bengal (region now divided between India and Bangladesh)  ► Bengâla, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 410.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 45.  1571 MATTIOLI 320)  |  adj. ► Bengâlensis, e  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 68)

//2 Cambridge  Cantabrigia, ae f.;  adj.  Cantabrigiensis, e (EGGER D.L. 30)

//2 Ceylon, Sri Lanka  ► Tâprobanê, ês f.  ¶ Plin.  EGGER S.L. 25.  ► Seilânum, i n.  ¶ Cf. various names derived from Pali SihalamSihalan, Sīlan (sometimes combined with dwipa, "island"):  Amm. 22, 7, 10, using Serendivus of the island's inhabitants: "nationibus Indicis certatim cum donis optimates mittentibus ante tempus ab usque Divis et Serendivis."  Cosmas Indicopleustes 11, 13, noting that the Greeks call the island Taprobane, the Indians Sielediba: " Αύτη εστιν ή νησος ή μεγάλη εν τω Ωκεανωεν τω Ινδικω πελάγει κειμένηπαρα μεν Ινδοις καλουμένηΣιελεδίβαπαρα δε Έλλησι Ταπροβάνη."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 448: "Seilam."  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 22: "Seylam."  1571 MATTIOLI 323: "Zeilan."  EGGER D.L. 11: Ceilanum.  Cf. also Arabic Serendib.  For the derivation of these names, see Yule 2, 314, n. 2.  ► Srilanca, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 25.  |  adj.  ► Tâprobanius, a, um  ► Seilânus, a, um  ¶ Cf. EGGER D.L. 11: Ceilanianus.   ► Srilancânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 25.

//2 China  ► Sinae, arum m. pl.  ¶ 1726 Wolff: "Prisci Sinarum imperatores et reges iidem erant philosophi."  ► China, ae f. (with ch sounded as in English or Spanish)  ¶ 1726 Wolff 18.  ► Sêres, um m. pl.  ¶ Verg.  Hor.  Plin.  See Yule 1, 11-12, quoted below.  ► Cathai indecl. (in precise usage, referring to northern China, the south being called Mangi)  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLOA 482, on Kaidu, cousin and rival of Kublai Khan: "Caydu petebat magno Kaan quod volebat partem suam de conquaesto provinciae Cathay et de provinciâ de Mangi."  ►► For the identification of the ancient Seres with China, and an enlightening account of European names for that land, see Yule's edition of Marco Polo (1, 11-12): "The northern provinces of China had been detached from native rule and subject to foreign dynasties – first to the Khitan ... whose rule subsisted for 200 years, and originated the name of KhitaeKhata, or Cathay, by which for nearly 1000 years China has been known to the nations of inner Asia, and to those whose acquaintance with it was got by that channel. ... The Russians still call it Khitae.  The pair of names Khitae and Machin, or Cathay and China, is analagous to that other pair, Seres and Sinae.  Seres was the name of the great nation in the Far East as known by land, Sinae as known by sea; and they were often supposed to be diverse, just as Cathay and China were afterwards."  Elsewhere Yule notes that the 13th-century traveler William Rubruquis, who "with characteristic acumen had seen that they [the Chinese] were identical with the the Seres of classical fame" (16).

//2 China cities: Beijing, Peking  ► Pekînum, i n.  ► Pechînum, i n.  ►► EL: Pékin; Pekín; Pechino; Peking; Πεκίνο.  Pinyin Běijīng; Wade-Giles Pei-ching.

//2 China cities: Changchun

//2 China cities: Chengdu

//2 China cities: Guangzhou, Canton

//2 China cities: Hangzhou

//2 China cities: Harbin

//2 China cities: Hong Kong  ► Honcongum, i n.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 10.  |  adj.  ► Honcongensis, i   ¶ EGGER S.L. 84.  ►► EL: Χονγκ Κονγκ.  Pinyin Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles Hsiang-kang.

//2 China cities: Shanghai // Siamhaevum, i n.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 37.

//2 China cities: Shenyang

//2 China cities: Tianjin

//2 China regions: Tibet  ► Tibetum, i n.  ► Tebet n. indecl.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 397.  |  adj.  ► Tibetânus, a, um  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 16.  EGGER D.L. 56.

//2 China rivers: Huang-He, Hwang-Ho, Yellow River  Flumen Croceum (Becmann 261: "ad ripas crocei seu lutei fluminis," in description of China)

//2 China rivers: Yangtze, Chang Jiang  ► Flumen Longum (Sinarum) 

//2 China: Great Wall of China  ►  Cf. 1726 Wolff 82: "Xi Hoam ti, muri illius stupendi adversus irruptiones Tartarorum conditor."

//2 China: Taiwan

//2 China: Taiwan cities: Taipei

//2 Chinese  adj.  ► Sinicus, a, um  ¶ 1726 Wolff 16: "En Confucium sapientiae Sinicae non auctorem, verum restauratorem."  1811 PALLAS viii.  ► Sinensis, e  ¶ EGGER D.L. 56.  ►Chinensis, e (ch sounded as in English or Spanish)  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiv.  1826 LÜDERS 29.  ► Sêricus, a, um  ¶ Plin.  Amm.

//2 Chinese: a Chinese man  ► Sinensis, is m.  ¶ 1726 Wolff 16.  ► Sina, ae m.  ¶ 1726 Wolff 24: "Nihil Sinae de actionibus hominum praeceperunt ... nisi quod menti humanae apprime convenire intelligerent"; et passim.

//2 Columbia (nation in South America)  Columbia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 34)

//2 Columbia cities: Bogota  Bogota, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 51)

//2 Guiana  Guiâna, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 34)  |  adj.  Guianensis, e (EGGER D.L. 41)

//2 India  ► India, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 41.  ► India Citerior  ► Indostania, ae f.  ► Hindostânum, i n.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 47.  Cf. 1595 MERCATOR (vol. 2, "Asia"), distinguishing the region that corresponds roughly to the modern nation as "Indostan, alias India intra Gangem."  ► Res Publica Indica  ► Civitates Foederatae Indiae  ¶ EGGER D.L. 32.  ►► India, without further specification, is in Latin a vague and polyvalent term: the ancients used it of Asia beyond Persia, including sometimes Arabia and even parts of Africa as well; since Columbus it has been extended to America (India Occidentalis).  |  Fraser 73, on use of the term "India" in 15th-c. Latin texts: "Notions of India and its geography were extremely vague at that time (as Columbus would show); the name was indeed sometimes used in reference to Ethiopia."  |  Yule 2, 425-26, n. 7: "The term India became very vague from an early date.  In fact, Alcuin divides the whole world into three parts, Europe, Africa, and India.  Hence it was necessary to discriminate different Indias, but there is very little agreement among different authors as to this discrimination ... Conti divides India into three: (1) From Persia to the Indus (i.e. Mekran and Sind); (2) From the Indus to the Ganges; (3) All that is beyond the Ganges (Indochina and China) ... Greater India was originally intended, I imagine, for the real India, what our maps call Hindustan.  And the threefold division, with its inclination to place one of the Indies in Africa, I think may have originated with the Arab HindSind, andZinj.  I may add that our vernacular expression the Indies is itself a vestige of the twofold or threefold division of which we have been speaking.  The partition of the Indies made by King Sebastian of Portugal in 1571, when he constituted his eastern possession into three governments, recalled the old division into Three Indias.  The first, India, extending from Cape Gardafui to Ceylon, stood in a general way for Polo's India Major; the second, Monomotapa, from Gardafui to Cape Corrientes (India Tertia of Jordanus); the third, Malacca, from Pegu to China (India Minor)."     || [["India citerior" est apud LS, at non invenio in fontibus (Plin., Mela) ibi laudatis.]]

//2 India cities: Bombay, Mumbai  ► Bombaia, ae f.  ¶ Egger N.L.  ► Bombâca, ae f.  ¶ Lyttelton 205.  |  adj.  ► Bombaiensis, e  ¶ Egger N.L.  ► Bombâcensis, e  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS27.

//2 India cities: Calcutta, Kolkata  Calcutta, ae f. (1846 GROSSE 7)

//2 India cities: Delhi  ► Delium, i n.  ¶ Egger N.L.  ► Dellia, ae f.  ¶ Lyttelton 205.  |  adj.  ► Deliensis, e  ¶ Egger N.L.

//2 India languages: Sanskrit  lingua Sanscrita;  adj.  Sanscritus, a, um (Gesenius x: radicae Sanscritae)  ►► The i of Sancritus is short (see Hessler, marking the word with a micron throughout).

//2 India regions: Kashmir  Casmiria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 83)

//2 India regions: Malabar, Malabar Coast (southwest coast of Indian subcontinent)  Malabaria, ae f.;  adj.  Malabaricus, a, um (1652 TURS. 300)

//2 India regions: Punjab  Puniabia, ae f.  ►► Regio Quinquefluminense (EGGER S.L. 82)

//2 India rivers: Ganges  Gangês, is m.;  adj.  Gangêticus, a, um

//2 India rivers: Indus  Indus, i m.

//2 India: Tamil  subst.  Tamil, Tamîlis m. (cf. Span. plural Tamiles)  |  adj.  Tamîlicus, a, um;  Tamil (language)  sermo Tamîlicus, lingua Tamîlica;  speak Tamil  Tamîlicê loqui

//2 Indian Ocean  ► mare Indicum  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 10, et passim.  ► mare Indiae  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 440 et passim.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 1 et passim.  ►oceanus Indicus  ¶ EGGER D.L. 48. 

//2 Indochina  Indosinae, arum m. pl.

//2 Indochina: Cambodia  Camboia, ae f. (1698 Hofmann, "Nomenclator."  ► Cambosia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 55)  |  adj.  Cambosianus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 55)

//2 Indochina: Laos

//2 Indochina: Vietnam  Vietnamia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 42)  |  adj.  Vietnamiensis, e (EGGER D.L. 43)

//2 Japan  ► Iaponia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 255.  1784 THUNBERG xi.  EGGER D.L. 35.  | 

//2 Japan cities: Hiroshima

//2 Japan cities: Kyoto

//2 Japan cities: Nagasaki

//2 Japan cities: Tokyo

//2 Japanese  subst.  ► Iapo, onis m.  ► Iaponensis, is m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 337. |  adj.  ► Iaponicus, a, um  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xi.  ► Iaponensis, e  ¶ 1652 TURS. 299.  1784THUNBERG xv.  1811 PALLAS 58.  ► Niponicus, a, um  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxvi.

//2 Korea  Corêa, ae f. (Becmann 261; EGGER S.L. 56)  |  adj.  Coreânus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 13)

//2 Korea cities: Seoul  Seulum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 56)

//2 Malay (language)  lingua Malaica 1843 TRAPPEN 9)  |  in Malay  Malaice

//2 Malay (member of ethnic group inhabiting mainly Malay Peninsula and parts of Sumatra and Bornea)  Malaeus, i m. (Christen 51: "Malaii");  adj.  Malaicus, a, um 1843TRAPPEN 9)

//2 Malaysia  Malaesia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 43; cf. Mod. Gr.  Μαλαισ í α )

//2 Malaysia cities: Kuala Lumpur

//2 Malaysian  adj. Malaesianus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 43)

//2 Mongolia  Mongolia, ae f. (1811 PALLAS viii)  |  subst.  Mongolus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 15)

//2 mountains: Himalayas  Imaus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 37)  ► Imaus mons (EGGER D.L. 56)  ► iugum Imai (EGGER S.L. 83)

//2 mountains: Mount Everest  Everestius mons (EGGER D.L. 37, 53)

//2 Myanmar cities: Yangon, Rangoon  ► Rangûna, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 58. 

//2 Myanmar, Burma  ► Birmania, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 58.  ►► EL: Birmanie; Birmania; Birmania; Birma, Burma; Βιρμανία, Μπούρμα. 

//2 Nepal  Nepalia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 41)  |  adj.  Nepaliensis, e (EGGER D.L. 56)  ► Nipalensis, e (1846 GROSSE 6, 9)

//2 Pakistan  Pakistania, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 7)

//2 Pakistan cities: Islamabad  Islamabada, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 29)

//2 Pakistani  subst.  Pakistanus, i m., Pakistanianus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 54)  |  adj.  Pakistanicus, a, um, Pakistanianus, a, um

//2 Thailand  Siamia, ae f., Thailandia, ae f.

//21 Arab  subst.  ► Arabs, bis m. (acc. pl. usually Arabas)  ¶ Verg.  Vulg.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 15.  ► Sarracênus, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 132: "Mahometes genere Arabs seu Sarracenus"; et passim.  1698 HOFMANN s.v. calipha.  EGGER R.A. 137: "Copiae pontificiae in proelio navali anno 849 apud Ostiam commisso victoriam e Saracenis reportant."  ► Ismaêlîta, ae m.  ¶HIER. Vita Malachi 4, of an attack on a caravan by Bedouins: "Ecce subito equorum camelorumque sessores Ismaelitae irruunt."  ►► Sarracenus is often used for "Muslim" rather than "Arab," as a synomym for MahometanusMuslimus; but Arabs is always used of the race.

//21 Arabic  adj.  Arabicus, a, um (PLAUT.; PLIN.)  ► Arabius, a, um (PLAUT.; PLIN.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 347: "Arabius tibicen."  ► Sarracênus, a, um (1652 TURS. 132)  ► Saracênicus, a, um; 

//21 Arabic (language)  ► lingua Arabica  ► sermo Arabicus  |  in Arabic  ► Arabicê  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i: "liber Arabice exaratus."  |  speak Arabic  ► Arabicê loqui  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer.373.

//21 Asia Minor  Asia Minor (Oros. 1, 2, 25; 1843 TRAPPEN 14; 1846 GROSSE 8; Hase 3)  ► Asia, ae f. (CIC.; Verg.; SEN.)

//21 Bahrein  Baharina, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 46)

//21 Black Sea  Pontus Euxînus (CIC.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 297; EGGER S.L. 18)  ► Mare Euxînum (Ov.)  ► Mare Nigrum (1652 TURS. 356)

//21 Black Sea: Aegean Sea  ► mare Aegaeum  ¶  ► Aegaeopelagus, i m.  ¶ OED s.v. archipelago in etymological note, citing medieval sources.  ► Archipelagus, i m.  ¶ OED s.v.archipelago in etymological note, citing 13th c. treaty.  Bondelmontius 53: "mare Archipelagi."  Linné Species 2, 794: "Habitat ad Archipelagum."  Bentley 2, 603-04 (on Manil. 4, 617): "Propontis illud est mare quod Archipelagum inter et Pontum Euxinum iacet."  C. G. Heyne, Variae lectiones et observationes in Iliadem (Leipzig, 1802), v. 2, pt. 3, p.180, discussing  βορέης  in the Iliad: "Sub illud tempus per totum Archipelagum aquilones spirant."  1807 Sprengel 1, 377: "Per tres annos Graeciam, Archipelagum, Asian Minorem, Syriam et Aegyptum perquisivit."

//21 Black Sea: Bosporus, Bosphorus  ► Bosp(h)orus (Thracius)  ¶ Varr.  Hor.  Plin.

//21 Black Sea: Crimea  Chersonêsus (v. Cherronêsus) Taurica (PLIN.; 1811 PALLAS vii)  |  adj.  Tauricus, a, um (1652 TURS. 301: "facta a chano Tartarorum Tauricorum irruptione in Russiam."  ► Crimensis, e 1652 TURS. 302: "Nogaiensi et Crimensi Tartarorum provinciis")

//21 Black Sea: Dardanelles, Hellespont  ► Hellespontus, i m.  ¶ Cic.  Ov.  Plin.

//21 Black Sea: Gallipoli peninsula  ►

//21 Black Sea: Sea of Azov, Maeotis  ► palus Maeôtis  ¶ Plin.  ► lacus Maeôtis  ¶ Plin.  ► palus Maeôtica  ¶ Plin.

//21 Black Sea: Sea of Marmara, Propontis  ► Propontis, idis f.  ¶ Liv.  Plin.

//21 Black Sea: Strait of Kerch, Cimmerian Bosporus  ► Bosp(h)orus Cimmerius  ¶ Plin.  Curt.  Bentley 2, 604 (on Manil. 4, 618): "Maeotidos] Palus est Scythiae, quam ab Euxino Ponto discernit Bosphorus Cimmerius, et in quam Tanais fluvius recipitur."

//21 Cyprus  Cŷprus, i f. (CIC.; PLIN.)  |  subst.  Cŷprius, i m. (PLIN.)  |  adj.  Cŷprius, a, um (HOR.; PLIN.)  ► Cŷpriacus, a, um (ValMax.)

//21 Iran  ► Irania, ae f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 39.  ► Persia, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 318 et passim.  1811 PALLAS 8.  EGGER D.L. 39.  ► Persis, idis f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A299 et passim.  1652 TURS. 348.

//21 Iran cities: Tabriz  ► Thaurisium, i n.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 17.

//21 Iran cities: Teheran  Teherânum, i (EGGER D.L. 53)

//21 Iran: Persian, Farsi (language)  ► lingua Persica  |  in Persian, in Farsi  ► Persicê /

//21 Iran: Strait of Hormuz  ► Frêtum Hormuzânum

//21 Iranian  subst.  Persa, ae m. (EGGER D.L. 7, 59)  |  adj.  Persicus, a, um

//21 Iraq  ► Irâchum, i n.  ¶ Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 315: "Yrac."  ► Babylônia, ae f.  ¶ Plin.  Curt.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 305.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 6.  Ibid. 2, 17: "Habet etiam leones optimos et pulcherrimos maiores illis qui in Babyloniâ sunt."  See LS, equating the ancient Babylonia with Iraq.  ►► Iraquia (EGGER D.L. 46), Iraquianus (EGGER D.L. 59)

//21 Iraq cities: Baghdad  ► Bagdâdum, i n.  ¶ 1698 HOFMANN s.v. calipha.  ► Bagdâtum, i n.  ¶ 1688 DUCANGE Comn. 559.  EGGER D.L. 46.  ► Babylon Nova  ¶ Becmann 253: "ad nomen pertinent Babylonem dici 1. provinciam de qua hîc agimus, 2. urbem Babylonem Veterem ... 3. Babylonem Novam, quae hodierna Bagaded, 4. Babylonem Aegyptia quae Cairo."  ►Babylon, ônis f.  ¶ Byz. Gr.  1652 TURS. 209, describing the 13th-century Mongol sack of the city.  1652 TURS. 355, of a 17th-century Turkish military campaign.  |  adj.  ► Bagadadênus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 337.  ► Bagdâtensis, is  ¶ 1688 DUCANGE Comn. 559.  ► Babylônicus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 368. 

//21 Iraq cities: Basra  ► Basera, ae f.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 16.  Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 315: Bassara.  ► Basra, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 19.

//21 Iraq cities: Mosul  ► Mosul indecl.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 15.  |  adj.  ► Mosolînus, a, um  ¶ Letter of Pope Innocent IV, quoted in Yule I. 62.

//21 Iraq: Mesopotamia  Mesopotamia, ae f. (CIC.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 209, of 13th-century wars; 1652 TURS. 337, of a 17th-century siege of Baghdad)

//21 Iraqi  (subst.)  ► Irâchânus, i m.  |  (adj.)  ► Irâchânus, a, um 

//21 Jordan  Transiordania, ae f., Iordania, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 24)

//21 Kuwait  Cuvaitum, i n.;  adj.  Cuvaitensis, e (EGGER S.L. 14)

//21 Lebanon  Libania, ae f., ? Phoenicia, ae f.;  adj.  Libanensis, e (EGGER S.L. 13)  ►► Libanus, i m. (EGGER S.L. 12)  |  Libanus Latine nomen est montis; potestne et nationis esse nomen?

//21 Lebanon cities: Beirut  Bêrŷtus, i f. (PLIN.; TAC.; 1652 TURS. 144l EGGER S.L. 13)  |  adj.  Bêrŷtius, a, um (PLIN.)  ► Bêrŷtensis, e (DIG.)

//21 Near East, Middle East, Mideast, Levant  ► Oriens Medius  ¶ EGGER D.L. 32.   ► Oriens Propinquus  ¶ EGGER S.L. 12, 37.  ► Oriens Proximus  ¶ PERUGINI, Concordata51.  ► Levans, ntis+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 301, of Hulagu Khan, Mongol ruler of much of contemporary Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran: "Alauchaam, dominus Levantis"; et passim.   | adj.  ► Levanticus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 46: "coffea Levantica."  ► Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 2: "Orientis populi qui cis Indum habitant."

//21 Palestine cities: Acre  ► Ptolemâis, idis f.  ¶ Cic.  Plin.  Vulg.  ► Achon indecl.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 6. |  adj.  ► Ptolemensis, e  ¶ Vulg.  Dig.

//21 Palestine cities: Jericho  Hiericûs, cuntis f. (PLIN.)  ► Hiericho, ontis f. (1652 TURS. 11)

//21 Palestine cities: Jerusalem  Hierosolyma, orum n. pl. (CIC.; TAC.; EGGER D.L. 32)  ► Hierosolyma, ae f. (Vulg.; 1652 TURS. 209)  ► Ierûsalem n. indecl. (EGGER D.L. 47)  |  adj. Hierosolymitânus, a, um

//21 Palestine cities: Tel Aviv  Ioppê, ês f., urbs Tel Aviv  ►► Vernicollis (EGGER D.L. 32)

//21 Palestine regions: West Bank  Cisiordania, ae f.

//21 Palestine: Holy Land  Terra Sancta (1652 TURS. 305; Hase 3)

//21 Palestine: Israel  Civitas Israêliâna (EGGER D.L. 32)  ► Israêl, is m. (EGGER D.L. 35)  ► Iûdaea, ae f.;  Israeli  subst.  Israêliânus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 46)  |  adj.  Israêliânus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 46)

//21 Palestinian  subst.  Palaestînus, i m. (Ov.; Vulg.; HIER.)  |  adj.  Palaestînus, a, um, Palaestînensis, e  ►► Palaestinensis, is m. (EGGER D.L. 30)

//21 Palestinian state

//21 Persian Gulf  Persicus Sinus (PLIN. 12, 37; 1595 MERCATOR II "Africa"; EGGER D.L. 30)

//21 Qatar  Quataria, ae f.;  adj.  Quatarianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 46)

//21 rivers: Jordan  Iordânes, is m. (PLIN.; Vulg.; 1652 TURS. 11)

//21 Saudi Arabia  Arabia Saudiana (EGGER S.L. 63)  |  adj. Arabicus Saudianus (EGGER D.L. 19)

//21 Saudi Arabia cities: Mecca  Mecca, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 6; EGGER D.L. 19)

//21 Saudi Arabia cities: Medina  Medîna, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 11)

//21 seas: Red Sea  Sinus Arabicus (1595 MERCATOR II "Africa."  ► Mare Rubrum 1843 TRAPPEN 47; EGGER D.L. 19)  ►► Mare Rubrum is an ambiguous term; Pliny (12, 37) uses it of the Persian Gulf, 1595 MERCATOR (vol. 2, "Africa." of the Indian Ocean.

//21 Syria  Sŷria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 24)  |  adj.  Syriacus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 105)

//21 Syria cities: Damascus  Damascus, i f. (PLIN.; Vulg.; 1843 TRAPPEN 19)  |  adj.  Damascênus, a, um (PLIN.; 1843 TRAPPEN 26)

//21 Syria language: Syriac (dialect or variety of Aramaic)  \\ lingua Sŷriaca  |  adj.   \\ Sŷriacus, a, um  |  in Syriac  \\ Sŷriacê  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 88: "qui vero Syriace evangelium scripsit."

//21 Turk  subst.  ► Turca, ae m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 241 et passim.  1726 Wolff 18.  HASE 3.  1811 PALLAS 49.  EGGER S.L. 57.  ► Turcus, i m.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ i.  ►Turchimânus, i m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 311.

//21 Turkey  ► Turcia, ae f.  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 349.  1843 TRAPPEN 20 et passim.  EGGER D.L. 58.  ► Turchia, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 299 et passim.  1315 MARCO POLOB 1, 12 et passim.  ► Turcomannia, ae f.  ¶ 1771 WAY 3: "in Turcomanniâ Europaeâ inoculationem initium primum habuisse."  ► Turchimania, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 311 (for the identification, see Yule 1, 44 n.2).

//21 Turkey cities: Ankara  Ancyra, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 58; EGGER R.A. 144)

//21 Turkey cities: Bursa, Brusa  Prûsa, ae f. (PLIN.)  ► Bursa, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 20)  |  adj.  Prûsensis, e (PLIN.)

//21 Turkey cities: Edirna  Hadrianopolis, is f. (Amm.; 1843 TRAPPEN 19)

//21 Turkey cities: Istanbul, Constantinople  ► Constantînopolis, is f.  ¶ Amm.  Aus.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 300 et passim.  1652 TURS. 229, 370.  1843 TRAPPEN 11.  ►Byzantium, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 199 et passim.  1771 WAY 3.  |  adj.  ► Constantînopolitânus, a, um  ¶ Cod. Just.  1652 TURS. 238.

//21 Turkey cities: Istanbul: Hagia Sophia  aedes Sophiâna (DUCANGE s.v. presbyterium)  ► aedes Sanctae Sophiae (1652 TURS. 145)

//21 Turkey cities: Izmir, Smyrna  Smyrna, ae f. (CIC.; LIV.)  |  adj.  Smyrnaeus, a, um (PLIN.)

//21 Turkey regions: Anatolia  ►

//21 Turkey regions: Anatolia, Asia Minor  Asia Minor (Oros. 1, 2; 1652 TURS. 297)

//21 Turkey regions: Rumelia  ►

//21 Turkey regions: Thrace  ► Thrâcia, ae f.

//21 Turkey: Bosphorus  Bosphorus, i m.

//21 Turkey: Gallipoli (pensinsula)  Chersonêsus (v. Cherronêsus) Thracia (CIC.; PLIN.)

//21 Turkish  adj.  Turcicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 225; EGGER S.L. 52)

//21 United Arab Emirates  Principatûs Arabici Foederâti  ►► Foederatae Phylarchiae Arabicae (EGGER S.L. 46)

//21 Yemen  ► Iemen n. indecl.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 24.  ► Arabia Fêlix  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 7 et passim.  Boerhaave 2, 217.  1843 TRAPPEN 16: "ex Yamen sive Arabiâ Feliciore."  ►Eudaemon, onis m./f.  ¶ Plin.  Mel.

//21 Yemen cities: Aden  ► Aden indecl.  ¶ Cf. 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 46, of the Sultanate of Yemen: "Aden provincia regem habet quem soldanus vocant."

//21 Yemen cities: Mocha  ► Mocca, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 5.

//22 /Central Asia, homeland of the Tatars or Mongols  ► Asia Media  ► Tartaria, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 299 et passim.  ► Tataria, ae f.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS v.  |  adj. ► Tataricus, a, um  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 42.

//22 /Central Asia: Tartar, Tatar, Mongol, member of Turco-Mongol hordes that overran part of Asia and Europe in 13th c., inhabitant of Central Asia  ► Tartarus, im. // c.1300 MARCO POLO A 300.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 1.  1652 TURS. 207: "Tartari, gens Scythica"; et passim.  1726 Wolff 82, of the Great Wall: "Xi Hoam Ti, muri illius stupendi adversus irruptiones Tartarorum conditor."  ► Tatarus, i m.  |  adj.  ► Tartaricus, a, um  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 302: "lingua Tartarica," of the language of Kublai Khan.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 2.

//22 /Central Asia: Turkestan, area of Central Asia inhabited chiefly by Turkic peoples  ► Magna Turchia  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 482: "Est Magna Turchia ultra flumen Gion [scil. Amu Darya], et durat versus tramontanam usque ad confines magni Kaan."  Cf. Marcello Ciccuto, ed., Marco Polo, Il Milione [Milan: Rizzoli, 1981], p. 106, n.6, in a note on the parallel passage in the old Florentine version (my trans.): "It is called Greater Turkey to distinguish it from the reigion Marco calls Turcomania, corresponding to the territory of contemporary Turkey."

//22 Caspian Sea  Mare Hircanium (PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  ► Mare Caspium (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa"; 1811 PALLAS 42; EGGER S.L. 18)  ► Lacus Caspius (1811PALLAS viii)

//22 rivers: Amu Darya  ► Oxus, i m.  ¶ Plin.  Curt.

//22 seas: Aral Sea  Araliensis Lacus (1811 PALLAS 16)

//22 Turkmenistan  ►► Turcomania est potius pars Armeniae Maioris (vide 1698 HOFMANN, cartas geographicas).

//22 Uzbekistan cities: Samarkand  ► Maracanda, ae f.  ¶ Curt.

//3 Australia  ► Australia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 35.  ► Terra Austrâlis  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Asia."  ► Nova Hollandia  ¶ 1810 BROWN v. |  adj.  ► Australianus, a, um  ¶ EGGERD.L. 9.

//3 Australia cities: Canberra

//3 Australia cities: Melbourne

//3 Australia cities: Sydney  Sydneium, i n. (EGGER D.L. 9)

//3 Australia states: Adelaide

//3 Australia states: Brisbane

//3 Australia states: New South Wales // Nova Cambria f.  ¶ 1810 BROWN vii.

//3 Australia states: Perth

//3 Australia states: Queensland

//3 Australia states: South Australia

//3 Australia states: Tasmania

//3 Australia states: Victoria

//3 Australia states: Western Australia

//3 Indonesia  Indonêsia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 10)

//3 Indonesia cities: Jakarta  Iacatra, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 38)  ► Iacartum, i n. (EGGER D.L. 10)

//3 Indonesia islands: Bali

//3 Indonesia islands: Banda Islands

//3 Indonesia islands: Borneo

//3 Indonesia islands: Celebes, Sulawesi

//3 Indonesia islands: Java  ► Iava, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 309; 441.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 10.  1595 MERCATOR II "Asia."  BOERHAAVE II. 217.  1784 THUNBERGxiv.  1843 TRAPPEN 31.  Pharm. Austr. 168.  |  adj.  ► Iavanensis, e  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 2, 51.

//3 Indonesia islands: Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, Maluku Islands  Moluccae Insulae f. pl. (1571 MATTIOLI 323)  ► Moluccae, arum f. pl. (1595 MERCATOR II "Asia"; 1571MATTIOLI 323; 1652 TURS. 324)

//3 Indonesia islands: Moluccas: Ambon  Amboina, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 36)  |  adj.  Amboinensis, e 1843 TRAPPEN 36)

//3 Indonesia islands: New Guinea  Nova Guinea (1595 MERCATOR II "Asia")

//3 Indonesia islands: New Guinea: Papua New Guinea

//3 Indonesia islands: Sumatra  Sumatra, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Asia"; 1843 TRAPPEN 36; EGGER S.L. 49)  |  adj.  Sumatrensis, e 1843 TRAPPEN 2)

//3 Indonesia islands: Sunda Islands

//3 Indonesia islands: Timor

//3 Indonesia islands: Timor: East Timor

//3 New Guinea  Nova Guinea (EGGER D.L. 10)

//3 New Zealand  Nova Zelandia;  adj.  Novozelandicus, a, um, Neozelandiensis, e (EGGER S.L. 14)  ► Novozelandensis, e (EGGER D.L. 37)

//3 Oceania  Oceania, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 14)

//3 Philippines  ► Insulae Philippinae f. pl.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 8.  ► Insulae Philippicae f. pl.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v et passim.  ► Terra Philippina (EGGER D.L. 7)  |  adj.  ► Philippînus, a, um  ¶1784 DUCRUE 264.

//3 Philippines cities: Manila  ► Manîla, ae f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v.  EGGER D.L. 8.  |  adj.  ► Manilensis, e  ¶ EGGER D.L. 7.

//3 Philippines islands: Luzon

//3 Philippines islands: Mindanao

//3 Samoa  Insulae Samoanae (EGGER D.L. 8)

//4 /Africa  ► Africa, ae f.  ¶ Mel.  Oros. 1, 2.  1595 MERCATOR II "Orbis Terrae."  |  adj.  ► Africânus, a, um /

//4 /Africa: langauges: Swahili  Svahilius, i m.;  adj.  Svahilicus, a, um.;  (language)  lingua Svahilica;  in Swahili  svahilicê  ►► lingua svahiliana (EGGER S.L. 102).  Non quadrat inclinamentum -anus, cum vox de loci nomine non derivetur.

//4 /Africa: sub-Saharan Africa, black Africa  ► Africa Transaharâna  ► Aethiopia, ae f.  ¶ Plin. 6, 8; 6, 35.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 477, after descriptions of Madagascar, Zanzibar, and Abysinnia: "Terminatis iis quae de Indiâ et quibusdam Aethiopiae regionibus narrare disposui, nunc ... ad regiones quasdam optimas quae sunt in extremis partibus aquilonis ... redeamus." Aethiopia is the land of black people, Aethiopes.

//4 Benin  Beninum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 39)

//4 Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)  Burkina, ae f.  ►► Official name is Republic of Burkina; Faso means "land."  Volta Superior (EGGER S.L. 30).  EL: Μπουρκίνα Φάσο

//4 Cameroun  Cammarunia, ae f.;  adj.  Cammarunianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 14)

//4 Cape Verde  ► Promontôrium Viride  ¶ 1776 MORELLI 7.

//4 Chad  ? Tzadia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 56)

//4 Congo  adj. Congensis, e (EGGER D.L. 23) )

//4 Côte d'Ivoire, Ivory Coast   ►► EL: Ακτή Ελεφαντοστού

//4 Ethiopia  ► Abyssinia, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 47.  ► Abascia, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 473.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 43.  Cf. Arabic  حباش habasha (ultimate source also ofAbysinnia).  For the identification of Marco's Abascia as Abysinnia, see Yule 2, 431.  ► Aethiopia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 87.  1843 TRAPPEN 70, using Aethiopia and Abysinniainterchangeably.  |  adj.  ► Abyssinus, a, um  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Africa": "Abissini."  ►► Abysinnia is a much clearer term for the modern nation, as Aethiopia has been since antiquity much more general in reference, referring to all or large parts of sub-Saharan Africa (Plin. 5, 43), and sometimes, apparently, roughly equivalent to the equally polyvalent India.  Serv. G. 2, 116: "Indiam omnem plagam Aethiopiae accipimus."  Yule 2, 432: "Wadding gives a letter from the Pope (Alexander II) under date 3rd Sept. 1329, addressed to the Emperor of Ethiopia, to inform him of the appointment of a bishop of Diagorgan [in Persia]."  Note also that Aethiops since the end of the Middle Ages has been frequent as a synonym of nigrita, for any member of the black race.

//4 Ethiopia: Addis Ababa

//4 Ethiopia: Djibouti  ►► EL: Gibuti; Yibuti; Τζιμπουτί; Dschibuti; Arabic Jībūtī; Somali Jabuuti

//4 Ethiopia: Eritrea  Erythraea, ae f.  ►► EL: Ερυθραία

//4 Ethiopian  subst.  ► Abysinnus, i m.  ¶  ► Aethiopiânus, i m.  ¶  |  adj.  ► Abysinnicus, a, um  ¶   ► Aethiopicus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 87. 

//4 Ghana  Gana, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 40)  |  adj.  Ganensis, e (EGGER S.L. 39)  ►► EL: Γκάνα

//4 Guinea  ►► EL: Γουινέα

//4 Kenya  Kenia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 78)  |  adj.  Kenianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 21)

//4 Kenya cities: Nairobi  Nairobia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 21)

//4 Mali  ►► EL: το Μαλί

//4 Mauritania  Maurîtania (Ulterior)

//4 Mauritius (island in Indian Ocean)  Insula Mauritiâna (v. Mauritii)  ► Mauritiâna, ae f.;  adj.  Mauritiânus, a, um 1843 TRAPPEN 2)

//4 Mauritius: Republic of Mauritius  Res Publica Mauritiâna

//4 Mauritius: Reunion (island in Indian Ocean)  ►► Historical names: Santa Apolonia, Mascareignes (with Maurice and Rodrigue, after explorer Pedro de Mascarenhas)  ► île Bourbon.

//4 mountains: Atlas Mountains  Atlâs, antis m. (PLIN.; Verg.)  ► montes Atlantici (1798 DESFONTAINES ii: "Atlantici montes in duos tractûs praecipuos dividuntur."  |  adj.  Atlanticus, a, um (MART. )

//4 Mozambique  Mozambîcum, i n. (EGGER D.L. 24; EGGER S.L. 70)  ►► "denique in ipso Mosanbicho hyberna agere" (p. 2, ORATIO HABITA A FARA D. MARTINO Iaponio, 1587) (misit locum Iustinus).  EL: Μοζαμβίκη

//4 Nigeria  Nigeria, ae f.;  adj.  Nigeriânus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 74)

//4 Nigeria cities: Lagos  Lacupolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 75)

//4 rivers: Congo  Congus, i m.

//4 rivers: Niger  Nigris, is m.

//4 rivers: Nile  Nîlus, i m.;  adj.  Nîliacus, a, um, Nîlôticus, a, um

//4 Senegal  Senegalia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 61)  |  adj.  Senegaliensis, e (EGGER S.L. 61)  ►► EL: Σενεγάλη

//4 Somalia  ► Somalia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 31.

//4 Somalia: Mogadishu  ►

//4 South Africa  ► Africa Austrâlis  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiv: Africê Australis.  EGGER D.L. 48.

//4 South Africa: Cape of Good Hope  ► Caput Bonae Spei  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Africa."  ► Promontôrium Bonae Spei  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiv.  1843 TRAPPEN 38.

//4 Sudan  Sudania, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 46)  |  adj.  Sudaniensis, e (EGGER S.L. 50)  ►► EL: Σουδάν

//4 Tanzania  Tanzania, ae f. (EGGER N.L.)

//4 Tanzania: Zanzibar  ► Zingium, i n.  ¶ Cf. Cosmas.  ► Zanzibaria, ae f.  ¶ EGGER N.L. s.v. Tanzania.  Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 469: "in insulâ quae dicitur Zanzibar."  |  adj.  ►Zanguebaricus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 68.   ►► EL: Ζανζιβάρη.  ||  Hobson-Jobson: "The Persian Zangi-bar, 'Region of the Blacks,' was known to the ancients in the form Zingis (Ptolemy, i. 17, 9; iv. 7, 11) and Zingium. The Arab softening of the g made the name into Zanjibar, and this the Portuguese made into Zanzibar ... 'And those who navigate the Indian Sea are aware that Zingium, as it is called, lies beyond the country where the incense grows, which is called Barbary.'  Cosmas, in Cathay, etc., clxvii."  |  Robert F. Burton, The Lakes Regions of Central Africa (New York, 1860), 38: "Zanzibar, signifying Nigritia, or Blackland, is clearly derived from the [Persian] zang, in Arabic zanj, a negro, and bar, a region ... Traces of the word may be found in the earliest geographers.  Ptolemy records a Zingis, or Zingisa ... According to Cosmas Indicopleustes, the Indian Ocean beyond Barbaria is called Zingium."

//4 Togo  Togum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 39)  ►► EL: Το Τόγκο

//4 Zimbabwe  Zimbabua, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 48)  |  adj.  Zimbabuanus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 48)

//41 Algeria  Algeria, ae f. (titles of 19th c. botanical works; EGGER S.L. 51)  ► Algerium, i n. (1652 TURS. 253)  |  adj.  Algeriânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 254)  ► Algeriensis, e (EGGER S.L. 51)  ►► Regnum Algeriense (1798 DESFONTAINES i)  ► ager Algeriensis (1798 DESFONTAINES title page).  1698 Hofmann s.v. Algeria: "urbs Africae ... ab ea regio adiacens dicitur regnum Algerii ... Ita regno Algeriae potiti piratae ..."  1698 Hofmann s.v. Barbaria: "Barbaria ... nunc continet regna Marrocanum, Fezzanum, Algerianum, Tunetanum et Tripoliltanum, cum Barcana regione."

//41 Algeria cities: Algiers  Algeria, ae f. (1698 Hofmann; 1652 TURS. 324)  ► Algerium, i n. (1698 Hofmann s.v. Algeria1784 DUCRUE 258)  ► Icosium, i n. (PLIN. 5, 20; Amm. 29, 5)  | adj.  Algeriânus, a, um (1698 Hofmann s.v. Barbaria)  ► Algeriensis, e (EGGER N.L.: "ex usu Curiae Romanae"; 1798 DESFONTAINES i)  ► Icositânus, a, um (PLIN. 3, 19)

//41 Algeria mountains: Altaic Mountains  Montes Altaici (1811 PALLAS 16)

//41 Barbary Coast, Barbary  Barbaria, ae f. (1698 Hofmann s.v. Fezzanum)

//41 Egypt  Aegyptus, i f.

//41 Egypt cities: Alexandria  Alexandrîa (or êa)  ► ae f.;  adj.  Alexandrînus, a, um

//41 Egypt cities: Cairo  Cairum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 104; cf. 1652 TURS. 141, Cayrum; 1652 TURS. 206, Chayrum)  ► Caeres, is (1652 TURS. 141: "Abathaminus calphya ... Caerem urbem regiam – Cayrum vocamus – ubi olim Memphis fuerat, condidit."  ► Kahira, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 11, 13)  ► Babylon Aegyptia (Becmann 253)  ► Memphis, is f. 1843 TRAPPEN 17)  ►► The site of ancient Memphis is about twelve miles south of the center of Cairo; Greek and Latin writers since the Middle Ages have often applied the names of ancient cities to new cities built nearby (see Baghdad).

//41 Egypt regions: Nubia  ► Nûbia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Africa."

//41 Egypt regions: Nubian  subst.  ► Nûba, ae m.  ¶ Sil. 3, 269.  ► Nûbeus, i m.  ¶ Plin. 6, 192.  ► Nûbiânus, i m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 43, of the Abyssinians: "Continua bella habent cum soldano de Aden et cum Nubianis."  |  adj.  ► Nûbiânus, a, um /

//41 Egypt regions: Sinai desert  solitûdo Sinai (Vulg. Exod. 19, 1)  ► desertum Sinae (Vulg. Exod. 19, 2)

//41 Egypt regions: Sinai: Mount Sinai  mons Sinai (Vulg. Exod. 19, 11)  ► mons Sina (gen. montis Sinae) (1652 TURS.)

//41 Egypt: Suez Canal  Euripus Suesiensis (EGGER S.L. 78)

//41 Libya  Libya, ae f.;  adj.  Libycus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 41)

//41 Libya cities: Tripoli  Oea, ae (EGGER S.L. 41)  ► Tripolis, is f. (1698 Hofmann s.v. Marocanum1652 TURS. 258: "classis instructissima Philippi [II Hispaniae] regis Tripolim Africae urbem Siculis infestam bello petebat"; 1784 DUCRUE 258)  |  adj.  Tripolitânus, a, um (Eutr.; 1798 DESFONTAINES i: "regnum Tripolitanum")

//41 Maghreb, North Africa (excluding Egypt)  Barbaria, ae f. (1698 Hofmann; 1798 DESFONTAINES i: "oras Africae Septentrionalis quae nunc Barbaria dici solent"; 1843 TRAPPEN47)  ►► 1698 Hofmann s.v. Barbaria ostendit variis exemplis regionem Africanam  Βαρβαριαν  iam ante Arabum adventum audiisse.

//41 Maghreb: Berber 

//41 Maghrebi, North African (excluding Egypt)  subst.  Maurus, i m. (1784 DUCRUE 258: "hae [cymbae piscatoriae] enim dum piscando panem suum quaerunt, saepissime in Maurorum reti incidunt, quas vel Tripolim vel Algerium abducunt, et in servitutem redigunt"; 1798 DESFONTAINES iii)

//41 Moor  Maurus, i m. (PLIN.; LIV.; 1652 TURS. 245: "Ferdinandus et Elizabetha Hispaniarum reges, Granatâ urbe per vim potiti, Maurorum in Hispania regnum excîderunt")

//41 Morocco  Maroc(h)ânum, i n. (1698 Hofmann)  ► Marochum, i n. (1698 Hofmann)  ► Marrochum, i n. (1652 TURS. 263)  ► Marrocum, i n. (1652 TURS. 291)  ► Marocum , i n. (1652TURS. 324)  ► Marochium, i n. (EGGER S.L. 42)  ► Marochii regnum (1698 Hofmann s.v. Fezzanum)  ► Mauritânia Tingitâna (1698 Hofmann, "Nomenclator," s.v. Marocco)  |  adj. Maroc(h)anus, a, um (1698 Hofmann s.v. Marocanum)  ► Marocanus, a, um (1798 DESFONTAINES i)  ►► Marokiensis (EGGER N.L. s.v. Rabat)

//41 Morocco cities: Agadir  Agades (1698 Hofmann s.v. Marocanum)

//41 Morocco cities: Casablanca

//41 Morocco cities: Fez  Fezza, ae f. (1698 Hofmann)  ► Fessa, ae f. (1698 Hofmann s.v. Marocanum)  |  adj.  Fezzânus, um, a (1698 Hofmann s.v. Fezzanum)  ► Fessânus, a, um (1698Hofmann s.v. Fezzanum)

//41 Morocco cities: Marrakech  Marochium, i n. (1698 Hofmann)  ► Marochopolis, is f.

//41 Morocco cities: Rabat  Sala, ae f. (PLIN. 5, 5; for identification, see EGGER N.L.)  ► Rabatum, i n. (EGGER N.L.)  |  adj.  Rabatensis, e (EGGER N.L.)

//41 Morocco cities: Tangiers  Tingi, is f. (PLIN.; EGGER N.L.)  |  adj.  Tingitânus, a, um (PLIN.; EGGER N.L.)  ► Tingensis (Corrip.; EGGER N.L.)

//41 Sahara desert  plaga arida Saheliana (EGGER S.L. 30)  ► deserta loca Sahariana (n. pl.) (EGGER S.L. 51)  ►► desertum Sahara dictum (1798 DESFONTAINES i)

//41 Saharan  adj.  Sahelianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 30)  ► Saharianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 51)  ► Garmanticus, a, um (PLIN., of an ancient people living in the Sahara)

//41 Tunis  Tûnês, êtis m. (1698 Hofmann; EGGER S.L. 51)  ► Tŷnês, êtis m. (LIV. 30, 9, 10)  ► Tûnêtum, i n. (1652 TURS. 211 et passim1798 DESFONTAINES i: "Tuneti et antiquae Carthaginis litora salutavimus."  |  adj.  Tûnêtânus, a, um (1698 Hofmann s.vv. Tunes, Fezzanum1652 TURS. 211, 253)  ► Tûniseus, a, um (SID.)

//41 Tunisia  Tûnêsia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 51)  |  adj.  Tûnêsiensis, e (EGGER S.L. 51)  ►► Tûnêtânum regnum (1698 Hofmann; 1652 TURS. 253; 1798 DESFONTAINES i)  ► ager Tunetanus (1798 DESFONTAINES title page)

//5 /America (North and South), New World, western hemisphere  ► America, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "America" map.  1652 TURS. 245.  ► Americê, ês f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xv et passim.  ► utraque America  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 217.  ► utraque Americê  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xvi.  ► India Occidentalis  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 33: "in India Occidentali vero, in colonia Surinamensi."  ► Indiae Occidentales (f. pl.)  ¶ 1652 TURS. 374.  ► India Nova  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "America" map.  ► orbis novus  ¶ 1652 TURS. 245.  1794 RUIZ xvi.  1811PALLAS 10.

//5 /America: North America  ► America Boreâlis  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xi.  1811 PALLAS 8.  ► America Septentriônâlis  ¶ GESENIUS ix.  1794 RUIZ vi.  1826 LÜDERS 29.  |  adj. ► Americânus Boreâlis  ► Boreamericânus, a, um

//5 /America: South America  ► America Australis  ► America Meridiâna  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 45.  EGGER S.L. 15.  ► America Meridiônâlis  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 29.

//5 /American Indians: Algonquin  Algonquinius, i m. (1698 Hofmann, "Nomenclator")

//5 / American Indians: Iroquois Iroquensis -is (Breviarium Monsasticum 1940, Fetum Ss. Jogues et al.)

//5 / American Indians: Huron Hurō -onis m. (Breviarium Monsasticum 1940, Fetum Ss. Jogues et al.: “Joannes de Brebeuf, Huronum apostolus merito nuncupatus”), ;  adj.  Hurōnicus, a, um (cf. Saxōnicus)

//5 /American, concerning the Americas (adj.)  ► Americânus, a, um  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 48 et passim.  ►► Indiae without specification (like "") refer to both "Indies" – Asia and the Americas.  1784 DUCRUE 259: "quotquot naves ex Indiis redeunt."  1652 TURS. 327: "Hispaniarum et Indiarum rex Catholicus."  Cf. the expression utraque India1794 RUIZ iii: "arboribus stirpibusque ... ex vastissimis regionibus in utrâque Indiâ transmissis."  1794 RUIZ viii: "rarioribus ex utrâque Indiâ plantis instruendi negotiuim."

//5 /American, inhabitant of the Americas (noun)  ► Americânus, i m.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xvii.

//5 /Latin America  America Latina (EGGER D.L. 43)

//5 Argentina  Argentîna, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 8)  |  adj.  Argentînus, a, um. (EGGER S.L. 7)

//5 Argentina cities:  Bonae Aurae f. pl. (José Cardiel, Declaración de la verdad, Buenos Aires, 1900, imprimatur page)  ► Urbs Boni Aëris (Dobr.)  ► Bonus Aêr (Dobr.)  ► ? Bonaëropolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 11)  ►► Bonis Auris is the place indication used in Latin books published in Buenos Aires (since the mid-19th century) (WC).  Academia Literaria del Plata, Estudios, 1967, p. 294: "dicunt ferme urbem Boni Aeris: malo Bonas Auras dicere.  Id conformius est antiquis illis formis 'Aquas Sextias,' 'Fossam Clodiam,' aliis")

//5 Bolivia  ► Bolivia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 34.

//5 Brazil  Brasilia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 245; EGGER D.L. 34)  |  adj.  Brasilicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 297)  ► Brasiliensis, e (EGGER S.L. 15)

//5 Brazil cities: Brasilia  Brasiliopolis, is f.

//5 Brazil cities: Porto Alegre  Alacer Portus (Graesse, of town in Portugal)

//5 Brazil cities: Rio de Janeiro  Flumen Ianuârium, Sanctus Sebastiânus 1843 TRAPPEN 2)  ► Sebastiânopolis, is f.

//5 Brazil cities: Sao Paulo  Sanctus Paulus, Paulopolis, is f.

//5 Brazil rivers: Amazon  Amâzonum flûmen(Humboldt)  ► amnis Amazonius (EGGER D.L. 34)

//5 Brazil rivers: Amazon region  Amazonia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 34)

//5 Chile  ► Chilia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 81.  |  adj.  ► Chilensis, e  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i.  ► Chiliensis, e  ¶ EGGER D.L. 13.  ►► 1794 RUIZ xii: Regnum Chilense.  Chiloensis, e (1784DUCRUE 263: "in Provincia Chiloensi sive Insulis Chiloensibus")

//5 Chile cities: Concepción  ► Conceptionis Urbs  ¶ Cf. 1794 RUIZ xii: Conceptionis provincia.

//5 Chile cities: Santiago

//5 Chile cities: Valparaiso

//5 Colombia  ► Columbia, ae f.

//5 Colombia cities: Bogotá

//5 Colombia cities: Cali

//5 Ecuador  ► Aequatoria, ae  ¶ EGGER S.L. 40.

//5 Ecuador cities: Quito  Quitum, i n. (BauhinHist. 622; EGGER S.L. 40)

//5 Falkland Islands, Malvinas  ►

//5 Mexican  adj.  Mexicânus, a, um (1784 DUCRUE 230; EGGER D.L. 43)

//5 Mexico  ► Mexicum, i n.  ¶ Pharm. Austr. 185.  EGGER D.L. 43.  ► Mexica, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 333.  |  adj.  ► Mexicânus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 253.  1794 RUIZ iii.  ►Mexicensis, e  ¶ 1794 RUIZ vi.

//5 Mexico cities: Acapulco  Acapulcum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 102)  |  adj.  Acapulquensis (1784 DUCRUE 241)

//5 Mexico cities: City  Mexicum, i n. (1784 DUCRUE 245)  ► Mexicopolis, is f. (EGGER D.L. 43)

//5 Mexico cities: Guadalajara  Guadalaxâra, ae f. (1784 DUCRUE 245)  |  adj.  Guadalâxariensis, e (1784 DUCRUE 244)

//5 Mexico cities: Jerez   urbs Xeresana (1784 DUCRUE 245)

//5 Mexico cities: Monterrey  Regimontium, i n., Mons Regalis (EGGER D.L. 44)

//5 Mexico: cities: Veracruz  Civitas a Vera Cruce dicta (1784 DUCRUE 247)  ► Portus Verae Crucis (1784 DUCRUE 256, of Cuban city)

//5 Mexico: Nahua (member of ethnic group)  \\ Navatlaca, ae m. \ Hoffman 155, s.v. Mexicani

//5 Mexico: Nahuatl (language)  \\ lingua Mexicana \ 1784 DUCRUE 246.

//5 mountains: Andes  ► Andes, ium f. pl.  ¶ 1602 ACOSTA 119.  1794 RUIZ xii: "Andiumque partem lustravimu."  Humboldt.  |  adj.  ► Andînus, a, um  ¶  ►► Andae, arum f. pl. (EGGERD.L. 55; cf. Italian "le Ande").

//5 Paraguay  ► Paraquaria, ae f.  |  adj.  ► Paraquariensis, e  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 221.

//5 Peru  ► Peruvia, ae f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v et passim.  EGGER D.L. 34.  ► Perua, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 67.  |  adj.  ► Peruviânus, a, um  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i.  ► Peruânus, a, um  ¶ 1602ACOSTA 118.  1652 TURS. 300.  1794 RUIZ xvi.

//5 Peru cities: Callao  ► Callâum, i n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ x.

//5 Peru cities: Lima  ► Lima, ae f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ x.

//5 Peruvian  adj.  Peruvianus, a, um (Pharm. Helv. [1907] 60; EGGER S.L. 14)  ► Peruânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 253; BauhinHist. 622)

//5 seas: Magellan: Strait of Magellan  Frêtum Magellanicum (1595 MERCATOR II "America" map)

//5 Surinam  Surinamum, i n. 1843 TRAPPEN 33)  ► Surinamia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 34)  |  adj.  Surinamensis, e 1843 TRAPPEN 2 et passim)

//5 Surinam: French Guiana  ► Guiana Gallica  |  adj.  ► Guianensis Gallicus  ► Guianogallicus, a, um

//5 Surinam: French Guiana: Cayenne  Caienna, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 33; EGGER N.L.)  |  adj.  Caiennensis, e (EGGER N.L.; cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 2: Cayenensis)

//5 Surinam: Guyana  Guiana, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 42; EGGER N.L.)  |  adj.  Guianensis, e 1843 TRAPPEN 68; EGGER N.L.)

//5 Uruguay  ►

//5 Uruguay cities: Montevideo  ►

//5 Venezuela  ► Venetiola, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 33.  |  adj.  ► Venetiolânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 33.

//5 Venezuela cities: Caracas  ► Caracae, arum f. pl.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 33.  |  adj.  ► Caracensis, e  ¶ EGGER S.L. 33.  ► Caracasensis, e  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 29.

//51 /Caribbean  adj.  Antillensis, e, Caribicus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 60)

//51 /Caribbean islands, Antilles  ► Antillae, arum f. pl.  ¶ 1776 MORELLI 7: "Plerasque omnes ex parvis Antillis Colonus invenit."  1843 TRAPPEN 34: "in Martinicam et ceteras Antillas." EGGER D.L. 40.  EGGER S.L. 58.

//51 /Caribbean Sea  Mare Antillense, Mare Caribicum (EGGER D.L. 40; EGGER S.L. 58)

//51 Antigua  ► Antîqua, ae f.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Antîquensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Aruba  ► Arûba, ae f.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Arûbensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Bahamas  ► Insulae Bahamenses (f. pl.)  ¶ EGGER D.L. 21.  EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Bahamensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L. citing 18th-century source.

//51 Bahamas cities: Nassau  ► Nassova, ae f.  ¶ Graesse, of German town that lent its name to the Dutch royal family, after which in turn the Bahamian city was named.

//51 Barbados  ► Insula Barbâtiâna  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Barbâtiânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Bermuda  ► Bermûdae, arum f. pl.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Bermûdensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Cayman Islands  ► Insulae Caimanenses (f. pl.)  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Caimanensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Cuba  ► Cuba, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "America" map.  1776 MORELLI  7.  1843 TRAPPEN 2.  |  adj.  ► Cubânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 60.

//51 Cuba cities: Guantánamo  ► Guantanamum, i n.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Guantanamensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Cuba cities: Guantánamo Bay  ► Sinus Guantanamensis

//51 Cuba cities: Havana  Havâna, ae f. (1784 DUCRUE 249 et passim; cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 2: Havanna)  |  adj.  Havanensis, e (1784 DUCRUE 254)  ►► Habanensis, e (EGGER S.L. 60)

//51 Curaçao  ► Curacâum, i n.  ¶ EGGER N.L. |  adj.  ► Curacaitânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Grenada (Caribbean island)  ► Granâta, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 60.  EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Granâtensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Guadéloupe  ► Guadalûpa, ae f.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Guadalûpensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Hispaniola  ► Hispâniola, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "America" map.  EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Hispâniolânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Hispaniola: Dominican cities: Santo Domingo  Dominicopolis, is f. (EGGER D.L. 43)

//51 Hispaniola: Dominican Republic  ► Res Publica Dominicâna  ¶ EGGER D.L. 43.  |  adj.  ► Dominicânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER D.L. 43.  ►► EGGER N.L.: Res Publica Dominiciana.

//51 Hispaniola: Haiti  ► Haitia, ae f.  ► Civitas Haitiâna  ¶ EGGER N.L. s.v. Hispaniola. |  adj.  ► Haitiânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 43.

//51 Jamaica  ► Iamaica, ae f.  ¶ 1698 HOFMANN, "Nomenclator."  1776 MORELLI 7.  1843 TRAPPEN 35.  EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Iamaicensis, e   ¶ Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 2: Jamaquensis.  ► Iamaicânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Martinique  ► Martinîca, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 34.  EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Martinîcensis, e  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 2.  EGGER N.L.

//51 Puerto Rico  ► Portoricus, i m.  ¶ Milton.  1776 MORELLI 15.  ► Portus Dives  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Portoricensis, e  ► Portudivitensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Saint Barts, Saint Barthélemy  ►   ¶   |  adj.  ►   ¶

//51 Tobago  ► Tobâgum, i n.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Tobâgensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Trinidad  ► Trinitâtis Insula  |  adj.  ► Trinitâtensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Virgin Islands  ► Insulae Virginâriae (f. pl.)  |  adj.  ► Virginârius, a, um

//52 /Central America  America Media (EGGER S.L. 43)

//52 Belize  Belîza, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 43)

//52 Costa Rica  Ora Dives (EGGER D.L. 44)  |  adj.  Orodivitensis, e (EGGER S.L. 43)

//52 El Salvador  Salvatoria, ae f., Civitas Salvatoriana (EGGER S.L. 43, Res Publica Salvatoriana (EGGER D.L. 44)

//52 Guatemala  Guatimalia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 44; EGGER S.L. 43)

//52 Honduras  Honduria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 43)  |  adj.  Hondurianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 14)

//52 Nicaragua  Nicaragua, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 44; EGGER S.L. 43)

//52 Panama  Panama, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 43)  |  adj.  Panamensis, e (EGGER S.L. 18)

//6 /United States of America  Foederatae Civitates Americae, America Foederata (19th- and 20th-century ecclesiastical documents)  ►► Foederatae Americae Septentrionalis Civitates (EGGER D.L. 8-9): the nation's name is not "United States of North America."

//6 /United States of American: American (subst.), citizen of the US  ► Americânus, i m.  ¶ 1771 WAY 4, of inhabitants of the English colonies in North America.  ► Americânus Foederâtus  ¶ Cf. 1652 TURS. 337: Confoederati Belgae, of the inhabitants of the Dutch United Provinces.

//6 Alaska  Alsaca, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 22)  |  adj.  Alascanus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 28)

//6 Alaska cities: Anchorage  Ancoraria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 56)

//6 Alaska: Aleutian  (member of tribe)  Aleutus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 37)

//6 Alaska: Aleutian Islands  insulae Aleuticae (1811 PALLAS 52)

//6 Alaska: Bering Strait  Fretum Beringanum (EGGER S.L. 86)  ► Fretum Beringii (cf. insula Beringii, 1811 PALLAS 52)

//6 Arizona: Tuscon  Tusconia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 78)

//6 California  California, ae f. (1784 DUCRUE 220; EGGER D.L. 41)

//6 California: Los Angelos  Angelopolis, is f.; Urbs Angelorum (from WC: Constitutiones latae et promulgatae ab Illmo. ac Revmo. D.D. Francisco Mora, episcopo Montereyensi et Angelorum, in synodo quarta diocesana, habita in ... civitate Angelorum diebus 30 et 31 mensis Julii, A.D. 1889, Los Angeles, 1889)

//6 California: San Diego  Didacoplis, is f., Sancti Didaci Urbs, Sanctus Didacus;  adj.  Didacopolitânus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 79)

//6 California:San Francisco  Franciscopolis, is f. (EGGER D.L. 41)  ► Sancti Francisci Urbs, Sanctus Franciscus;  adj.  Franciscopolitânus, a, um

//6 California:San José  Iosephopolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 43)

//6 Californian  subst.  Californius, i m. (1784 DUCRUE 222 et passim, of native inhabitants)  |  adj.  Californicus, a, um (1784 DUCRUE 228)  ► Californiânus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 77)

//6 Colorado  Rubrifluvium, i n. (cf. "Flumen Rubrum" of Colorado River, 1784 DUCRUE)  ► Coloratum (Eg., Nom. Loc.)  |  adj.  Rubrifluvânus, a, um, Coloratensis, e (EGGER D.L. 49)  ►► For the formation of Rubrifluvium, cf. quadrifluvium.

//6 Connecticut: New Haven  Neoportus, ûs m. (1652 TURS. 274, of Flemish town)  ► Novoportus, ûs m. (1652 TURS. 416, of Flemish town)

//6 Florida   Florida, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "America" map; 18 c. titles in WC; EGGER D.L. 21)

//6 Florida: Cape Canaveral  Prômunturium Canaveralense (EGGER S.L. 13, 51)

//6 Florida: Miami  Miamia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 21)

//6 Florida: Palm Beach  Ora Palmaria (EGGER D.L. 33)

//6 Georgia (state)  Georgia, ae f.;  adj.  Georgiânus, a, um

//6 Illinois: Chicago  Sicâgum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 55)  |  adj.  Sicagensis, e (EGGER S.L. 54)

//6 Kentucky  Kentukia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 80)

//6 Kentucky: Louisville  Ludovicopolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 80)

//6 Louisiana  Ludoviciana, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 53)

//6 Louisiana: Cajun, creole

//6 Lousiana: New Orleans  Nova Aurêliâna, Nova Aurêlia;  adj.  Novoaurêliânus, a, um, Novus Aurêliânus (cf. Jord. 37, 194: civitas Aureliana, of Orleans, France)  ►► Neo-Aurelia (Synodus Dioecesana Neo-Aurelianensis Secunda, Neo-Aureliae, 1844; Concilium Neo-Aurelianense provinciale tertium, Neo-Aureliae, 1875)

//6 Maine  Cenomannica, ae (EGGER S.L. 20)

//6 Minnesota  Minnesôta, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 19)

//6 Missouri: St. Louis (city)  Ludovicopolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 53)  ► urbs Sancti Ludovici

//6 Nevada  Nivimontium, i n.;  adj.  Nivimontânus, a, um  ►► Nivata (EGGER N.L.).  For the formation of Nivimontium (from "Sierra Nevada."  ► cf. the ancient place names Caelimontium (Caelimontanus)  ► Trimontium, and Septimontium, and the later Regi(o)montium for Königsberg.

//6 Nevada: Las Vegas  Vegae, arum f. pl.  ►► Campi (Eg.)

//6 Nevada: Sierra Nevada  Mons Nivôsus

//6 New Hampshire  ¶ Nova Hampia

//6 New Jersey  Nova Caesarea (title from WC: Viro perhonorifico, artibus ingenuis limato ... Collegii Novae-Cæsareae .. hæc philosophemata ... Habita publicis comitiis in Aula-Nassovica, apud Princeton, Novae-Cæsareae [i.e. Woodbridge, N.J.], 1762)

//6 New Jersey: Princeton  Princetonia, ae f., Principitonia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 76)

//6 New York City  Novum Eborâcum n. (EGGER S.L. 19)  |  adj.  Novus Eboracensis, Neo-Eboracensis (cited in ecclesial documents and deeds of 1697, used by Glass, New York University, and Bertuch's 1808 Novus Orbis Pictus), Novoëboracensis (EGGER D.L. 28; WC).

//6 New York City: Brooklyn  Bruclînum, i n.;  adj.  Bruclinensis, e (EGGER S.L. 50)

//6 New York City: Long Island  Longa Insula (EGGER S.L. 50)

//6 New York City: Manhattan  adj.  Manhattensis, e (EGGER S.L. 48)

//6 New York: Buffalo  Buffalum, i n. (EGGER D.L. 21)

//6 New York: Niagara falls  cataracta Niagarae, cadentes aquae Niagarenses (EGGER S.L. 101)

//6 New York: World Trade Center, Twin Towers  turres geminae (Novae Eboracenses v. Novoëboracenses) 

//6 North Carolina  Carolîna Septentriônâlis (Carolina in 18 c. titles in WC)

//6 North Carolina: Charlotte  Carolinopolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 106)  ►► Fortasse "Carlotta" vel simile aptius, ne confundatur cum "Carolopoli" (Charleston).

//6 North Dakota: Fargo Fargum, i n.; adj. Fargensis, e (Muench, 1941)

//6 Ohio: Cincinnati  Cincinnātī -ōrum m.pl. (see History of Cincinnati) < Cincinnāta -ae (EGGER N.L.), Cincinnatus (Circoscrizioni), Cincinnâtiâna, ae f., Cincinnâtopolis, is f.

//6 Ohio: Columbus (city)  Columbopolis, is f. (EGGER D.L. 11)

//6 Oregon  Oregonia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 106)

//6 Pennsylvania: Philadelphia  ► Philadelphîa, ae f.  ¶ 1771 WAY title page   |  adj.  ► Philadelphênus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 34.

//6 Pennsylvania: Pittsburg  Pittisburgum, i n.;  adj.  Pittisburgensis, e (EGGER S.L. 88)

//6 regions: Great Plains  patentes campi (civitatum mediarum)

//6 regions: Midwest  civitates (occidentales) mediae

//6 rivers: Colorada River  Fluvius Ruber (1784 DUCRUE 233)

//6 rivers: Colorado  Flûmen Coloratum

//6 rivers: Mississipi  Mississipius, i m.

//6 rivers: Missouri  Missurius, i m. (EGGER N.L.)

//6 rivers: Rio Grande

//6 South Carolina: Charleston  Carolopolis, is f.

//6 Texas  Texia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 69)

//6 Texas: Laredo  Laurêtum, i n.

//6 Texas: Laredo  Lauretum, i n. (1784 DUCRUE 223)  |  adj.  Lauretanus, a, um (1784 DUCRUE 231)

//6 Utah: Salt Lake City  Lacûs Salsi Urbs (EGGER S.L. 32)

//6 Vermont  Viridimontium, i n.:  adj.  Viridimontânus, a, um  ►► For formation of Virimontium, cf. Trimontium (Plin.), Regi(o)montium,

//6 Vermont: Montpelier  Mons Pessulânus (Latin name of Montepellier, French city)

//6 Virginia  Virginia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 288)

//6 Virginia  Virginia, ae f.;  adj.  Virginiânus, a, um (1811 PALLAS 9)

//6 White House  Aedes Albae f. pl. (EGGER D.L. 46)

//6 Wyoming < (cf. the scientific name Echmatemys wyomingensis)

//6 Wyoming: Cheyenne Cheyennum n. (Circoscrizioni)

//6 Wyoming: Lander Landērium n.

//6 Wyoming: Casper Casparium n.

//6 Wyoming: Riverton Rīvertōnia f.

//61 /Canada  Canada, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "America" map; 1652 TURS. 281; EGGER D.L. 35)  |  adj.  Canadensis, e (1595 MERCATOR II "Polus Arcticus" map; 1652 TURS. 298)

//61 /Northwest Passage  navigatio ad Asian per plagam Arcticam cf. (1652 TURS. 296: "temptatur a Batavis infeliciter navigatio ad Sinas per borealem poli Arctici plagam")

//61 Alberta: Calgary  Calgaria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 67)

//61 Eskimo, Inuit  Escimaeus, i n., Inuîta, ae m.;  adj.  Escimaicus, a, um, Inuîticus, a, um

//61 Labrador  Terra Laboratoria (EGGER S.L. 20)

//61 Nova Scotia  Nova Scotia (EGGER S.L. 20)

//61 Quebec  Quebêcum, i n., Urbs Quebecensis (Breviarium Monasticum)   adj.  Quebêcânus, a, um (1811 PALLAS 9) Quebecensis -e

//61 Quebec: Montreal  Marianopolis, is f., Regimontium, i n., Mons Regalis (EGGER S.L. 98)

//61 rivers: Saint Lawrence  Flûmen Sancti Laurentii

/1

/1    PLANTS

/1 aloe (genus Aloe L., esp. Aloe vera)  ► aloê, ês f.  ¶ Plin.  Vulg.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 70: "de ligno aloes" (where Christopher Columbus writes in the margin of his copy "lignum aloes").  

/1 bamboo (tribe Bambuseae)  ► harundo Indica  ¶ VARR.  PLIN.  For the identification, see AndréBotanique.  Cf. 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 66, of Kublai Khan's retreat at Xanadu: "In medio nemoris habet rex magnus domum unam pulcherrimam de arundinibus compositam."

/1 clover  trifolium, i n.

/1 evergreen  ► semper virens  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxx: "arbores sempervirentes."  ► perpetuo virens  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 55.  ► foliis continuo vestitus  ¶ 1794 RUIZ x: "arbores et frutices... foliis continuo vestitae."  |  be evergreen  ► foliis perpetuis virescere  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 127.  ► perpetuâ fronde virêre  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 128.  ► folio perpetuum esse  ¶1571 MATTIOLI 161.

/1 evergreen: deciduous

/1 flowers: begonia (genus Begonia L.)  ► begonia, ae* f.  ¶ Linn. as genus name.  1794 RUIZ x.

/1 flowers: foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)  digitâlis purpurea (1846 GROSSE 21)

/1 flowers: orchid (family Orchidaceae, esp. genus Orchis L.)  ► orchis, is f.  ¶ PLIN.  Linn., as name of the type genus.  ► orchidea, ae* f.  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xix.  1794 RUIZxi.

/1 flowers: tulip  tulipa, ae* (Noël)

/1 lichen  lîchên, ênis m. (PLIN.)

/1 linoleum  tegmentum linoleâre*, linoleâre, is* n.

/1 linseed  lini semen (PLIN. 20, 249 et passim; (Pharm. Bat. III. 147; Pharm. Austr. 338)

/1 linseed oil  lini oleum (Pharm. Austr. 268)

/1 pamper oneself  cutîculam cûrare (HOR. Ep. 1, 2, 29)  ► pelliculam cûrare (HOR. S. 2, 5, 38)

/1 plant  ► planta, ae f.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS vii et passim.  ► stirps, is f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ ii, using stirps and planta interchangeably.  EGGER D.L. 34.  ► vegetâbile, is+ n.  ¶ 1784 THUNBERGxiii: "semina vegetabilium in genere, imprimis vero arborum et fruticum."  1794 RUIZ iv: "adolescentibus vegetabilia cognoscendi et delineandi apprime peritis."  ► vegetâle, is n. /

/1 plant adj.: early  praecox, praecoquus

/1 plant adj.: wild (plant or animal)  ► silvestris, e (plants or animals)  ¶ Hor.  Ov.  PLIN.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 356: "Sunt ibi boves silvestres qui sunt magni sicut elephantes."  Ibid.376, of Kublai Khan's feasts: "Habet fercula ... diversarum carnium, bestiarum et avium silvestrium et domesticarum."  1571 MATTIOLI 117.  ► erraticus, a, um (plants)  ¶ Vitr.  Plin.  ►agrestis, e  ¶ 

/1 plant kingdom  regnum vegetabile+  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 65.  Pharm. Austr. xvi.  Cf. 1794 RUIZ xvi: "quoniam utriusque Americes Insularumque Philippicarum provinciae ... tot opes e tribus naturae regnis suppeditabant ad botanices et historiae naturalis scientiam amplificandum."

/1 plant: flowering plants  ► vegetâbilia flôrentia (n. pl.)  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xvi.

/1 sea-weed  alga, ae f.

 /1 trees: fine wood: ebony (Tectona grandis L.)  ► hebenus, i f.  ¶ Verg.  Plin.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 441: "Et habent multum de ligno unde fiunt calamaria, id est de bonusso, quod in Latino dicitur ebenus."

/1 trees: fine wood: either of two related red-dye-producing trees: (1) brazilwood, pau-brasil, pernambuco (Caesalpina echinata), or (2) sappanwood, sapanwood, sappan (Caesalpina sappan)  ► brasile, is+ n.  ¶ Ducange: "BRASILE, BRASILIUM, BRESILLUM, Brasilicum lignum, vel coccum infectorium, color ruber ... Non ergo a Brasiliâ, vastissimâ regione huius appellationis, quae ab anno 1500 tantummodo cognita est, brasilis nomen habemus, quod illi potius inditum videtur quod eiusmodi ligno rubro abundaret" (quoting 12th and 14th c. sources)."  ► brasilium, i+ n.  ¶ Ducange, quoted above.  ► lignum Brasilicum  ¶ Ducange s.v. brasile in definition, quoted above.    ►► When it is necessary to distinguish the two trees, brazilwood may be called brasile Americânum, and sappanwood brasile Asiaticum (v. Malaicum v. orientâle).  |  OED s.v. brazil: "1. Originally, the name of the hard brownish-red wood of an East Indian tree, known as Sappan (Cæsalpinia Sappan), from which dyers obtain a red colour. After the discovery of the New World, the name was extended and gradually transferred to the similar wood of a South American species (C. echinata), which has given its name to the land of Brazil, and to other species, natives of the West Indies and Central America."

/1 trees: fine wood: sandalwood (genus Santalum L., esp. Santalum album L.)  ► santalum, i*  ¶ Matthiolus Epist. 142.  F. Bacon (ed. Spedding) 2, 156.  Latham quoting 17 c. sources.  Linn. as genus name.  Cf. adj. santalinum, in Periplus, quoted below.  ► sandalus, i+ m.  ¶ Latham.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 447: "Omnes eorum arbores sunt magni valoris, eo quod sunt sandali, nuces de Indiâ, et garofoli."  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 70, on Chinese exports: "de ligno aloes et de sandalis" (where Christopher Columbus writes in the margin of his copy "sandalus").  Ibid. 3, 20, in a passage parallel to the preceding one: "Nemore sunt ibi arborum sandalorum rubeorum, nucum Indiae, et gariofolarum."  1750 GEORG RUMPH, Herbarium Amboinense (Amsterdam, 1741-50), quoted in Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society (Edinburg, 1832), 6, 280.  Cf. Anc. Gr.  σάνδανον .  ► lignum santalinum  ¶ Periplus maris Erythraei 36 (Latin trans. by Karl Müller in Geographi Graeci minores 1, 285) (in Greek text  σανταλίνων , a generally accepted emendation of Salmusius for  σαγαλίνων  of MSS).  |  adj.  ►santalinus, a, um  ¶ Periplus, quoted above.  ►► Periplus maris rubri ch. 36 (trans. Schoff): "To both of these market-towns large vessels are regularly sent from Barygaza, loaded with copper and sandalwood and timbers of teakwood and logs of blackwood and ebony."   Schoff 152 (on that passage): "Sandalwood has been known in India from the most ancient times, the Sanskrit authors distinguishing various woods according to color.  Chandana is the name for the series ... This mention in the Periplus seems to be the earliest Roman reference to sandalwood.  It is mentioned by Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century) under the name tzandána."

/1 trees: fine wood: teak (Tectona grandis L.)  ►   ►► EL: teck; teak, teck; teca; Teak; Port. teca, Malayalam tekka.

/1 trees: maple: sugar maple (Acer saccharum)  ► acer saccharinum  ¶ Linn., as scientific name.

/12    

/12    PLANT PARTS

/12 anther  anthêra, ae (*) f. 1843 TRAPPEN 66)

/12 cluster (fruits, berries, flowers)  racêmus, i m.;  in clusters  racêmatim* (adv.) (1571 MATTIOLI 126, of apricot: "floribus ... racematim prodeuntibus"; 1571 MATTIOLI 108: "baccae racematim prodeunt"; 1571 MATTIOLI 334: "fructus racematim enascitur."  |  clustered, clustering  racêmôsus, a, um (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 675)

/12 filament (thin fiber or strand, esp. of plants)  capillamentum, i n. (SEN.; PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 112)

/12 fuzz (as on surface of peaches)  lânûgo, inis f. (Verg.; PLIN.)

/12 fuzzy, covered with fuzz  lânûginôsus, a, um (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 155: "nascitur haec nux lanuginoso, seu potius capillaceo involucro inclusa")

/12 head (lettuce, cabbage)  caput, orbis (André)

/12 peduncle, pedicel (flower stalk)  pediculus, i m. (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 323)

/12 petal  petalum, i* n. (of sheet or plaque of metal: ISID.; LATHAM; DUCANGE; of flower petal: OED citing 17th c. source)

/12 petal: calyx (of flower: sepals collectively)  ► calyx, cis m.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 324, of calyx of clove tree.  1810 BROWN vi.

/12 petal: corolla (of flower: petals collectively)  calathus, i m. (Col.; Aus.)  ► calyx, cis m. (PLIN.)  ► calyculus, i m. (PLIN.; APUL.; for meaning of all three terms in ancient authors, seeAndréBotanique)  ►► Vide OED s.v. sepal: Necker non agnovit discrimen corollae ac calycis.  OED s.v. calyx: "1671 MALPIGHI Anat. Plant., Calyx..floris basis est.  1686 RAY Hist. Plant. I. A2 Calyx, folliculus sive, involucrum floris.. the cup enclosing or containing the flower" (hoc videtur ad "calyx" ut nunc dicitur spectare).

/12 petal: sepal

/12 pine-cone  pînea, ae f. (Col.)  ► nux pînea (Marc. Med.)

/12 pistil  pistillum, i (*) n. 1843 TRAPPEN 65)

/12 pit, stone (as of peach, cherry)  ► nucleus, i m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 16.  ► os, ossis n.  ► ossiculum, i n.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 142.  Bauhin I. 421.

/12 pitless, seedless  spado, spadonius (André)f

/12 pod  (beans, peas)  siliqua, ae f. (Verg.; PLIN.)  ► corniculum, i n. (1571 MATTIOLI 322, of hot peppers; 1571 MATTIOLI 189, of beans)  ► capsula, ae f. (Rolander, of okra)

/12 pulp, flesh (soft, pulpy portion of fruit or vegetable)  caro, carnis f. (1571 MATTIOLI 127: of citron)  ► pulpa, ae f. (1571 MATTIOLI 128: "aqua distillata e limonum acidâ pulpâ"; (1571 MATTIOLI 124: "alia [mala persica] duracina vocantur, quod duriore sint pulpâ")

/12 skin, peel (of fruit)  cutîcula, ae f. (1571 MATTIOLI 142)  ► pellicula, ae f.

/12 stamen  stâmen, inis n. (PLIN. 21, 23; 1843 TRAPPEN 65)

/12 tendril  clâvicula, ae f. (CIC.; PLIN.)  ► capreolus, i m. (of grape vines) (Col.; PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 921)

/2 

/2    ANIMAL NAMES

/2 antilope  antilopê, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 3, 5)

/2 baboon  cynocephalus, i m. (CIC.; PLIN.; EGGER S.L. 80)

/2 badger  mêlês, is f. (1811 PALLAS 9)  |  taxus, i m., taxo, ônis m.

/2 bear: polar bear  ursus albus (EGGER S.L. 44; cf. EGGER L.D.I. 109: "ursi albo pilo, qui regiones incolunt glaciales")

/2 beaver  castor, oris m., fiber, bri m.

/2 bird: flamingo  phoenîcopterus, i m.

/2 bird: hawk:  falcon (genus Falco L.)  ► falco, ônis m.  ¶ Serv.  Isid.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 21.  1652 TURS. 398.  Linn. as genus name.

/2 bird: hawk:  falcon: gyrfalcon, gerfalcon (Falco rusticolus L.)  ► gyrofalco, ônis+ m.  ¶ Ducange citing Albertus Magnus and Frederic II.  ► gyrfalchus, i+ m.  ¶ 1315   B 1, 65: "Ipse autem rex cum gyrfalchis et herodiis seu falconibus suis in capturâ avium delectabiliter recreatur."  ► gyrfalcus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange.  ► hierofalco, ônis* m.  ¶ OED s.v. gyrfalcon in etymological note, citing Gesner and Aldrovandus. 

/2 bird: hawk:  falcon: peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus)  ► falco peregrînus  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 19.

/2 bird: hawk:  goshawk (Accipter gentilis L.)  ► astur, uris m.  ¶ Firm. Math.; for the identification, see André Oiseaux.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 382: "et portant multos astores"; et passim.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 14; for the identification, see Yule 1, 57, note 5, on this passage. 

/2 bird: heron (a number of genera of the family Ardeidae, esp. Ardea and Egretta)  ► ardea, ae f.  ¶ Verg.  ► ardeola, ae f.  ¶ Plin.  ► herôdius, i m.  ¶ Anc. Gr.  Vulg.  1315MARCO POLO B 1, 65.

/2 bird: ostrich  ► strûthiocamêlus, i m./f.  ¶ Plin.  Petr.  ► strûthio, ônis m.  ¶ Isid.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 474, of Ethiopia: "Ibi sunt struthiones grandes ut asini."

/2 bird: parrot (order Psittaciformes)  ► psittacus, i m. /

/2 bird: parrot: bird of paradise (family Paradiseaidae)  ►   ¶  ►► Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 474, of Abyssinia: "Ibi sunt papagalli sive epimachi multi et pulchri."  Epimachus is the name of a genus of birds of paradise.

/2 bird: penguin  pinguînus, i* m., spheniscus, i* m.  ►► aptenodytes (EGGER D.L. 25).  Pinguinus was the scientific name of a similar actic bird, extinct since the early 1800s; its vernacular names (penguin, pinguino, pigouin, etc.) were transfered to the antarctic bird. 

/2 bird: pheasant  ► phâsiânus, i m.  ¶ Suet. 

/2 bird: pheasant: francolin (genus Francolinus, esp. Francolinus francolinus, formerly Tetrao francolinus L.)  ► francolînus, i m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 22, describing a region of Persia: "Ibi sunt francolini coloris permixit albi et nigri; rubei autem coloris habent pedes et rostra."  (See Yule 1, 99, identifying the bird described here as Linné's Tetrao francolinus.)

/2 bird: pheasant: partridge  ► perdix, îcis m./f. /

/2 bird: pheasant: quail (imprecise term, encompassing Coturnix, Perdicula, and various related genera)  ► côturnix, îcis f.  ¶ Plaut.  Plin.  ► qualia, ae+ f.  ¶ Ducange. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 456.

/2 bird: waterfowl  aves aquatiles f. pl. (1811 PALLAS xi)

/2 bird-watcher  ornithoscopus, i* m. (Anc. Gr. of augur)

/2 bovine: aurochs, urus (Bos primigenius)  ► ûrus, i m.  ¶ Caes.

/2 bovine: buffalo (U.S.), bison (Bison bison L.)  ► bisôn, ontis m.  ¶ PLIN.  1811 PALLAS 10.  ►► Bison bison is the American bison; the wisent, or European bison, is Bison bonasus L.

/2 bovine: water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.)  ► bûbalus, i m.  ¶ MART.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 411.  |  adj.  ► bûbalînus, a, um  ¶ Hist. Aug.  Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 404: "Coracias [scil. loricas] habent de corio bufalino."

/2 cetaceans, marine mammals  lactantia marina n. pl. (1811 PALLAS 4)  ► cetacea, orum n. pl. (1811 PALLAS 53)

/2 cetaceans: whale  ► balêna, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 472, in a description of Zanzibar: "Habent satis de ambrâ [ambergris], quia capiunt multas balenas."  Marco Polo A uses balenaand cetus interchangeably of whales.  ► cêtus, i m. (pl. cêtê)  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 468: "Hic est copia de ambrâ pulchra et bonâ, quia in illo mari sunt cete grandia."  Cetus is also used generally of any large sea animal.

/2 cetaceans: whale: blubber  balênârum pinguêdo (1595 MERCATOR II "Islandia")

/2 chipmunk  sciûrus (v. sciûriscus) striatus (v. virgatus)

/2 coral  coralium, i n. (Ov.; PLIN.)

/2 deer (members of family Cervidae)  ►

/2 deer: elk (U.S.), wapiti (Cervus canadensis)  ► cervus Canadensis

/2 deer: fallow deer (Dama dama L.)  ► dama, ae f.  ¶   Cf. 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 66, in description of Kublai Khan's hunting-grounds at Xanada, perhaps of a sort of antelope: "Ibi sunt cervi, dammulae, capreoli."   ►► EL: daim; daino, damma; gamo; Damhirsch

/2 deer: moose (U.S.), elk (Br.) (Alces alces L.)  ► alces, is f.  ¶ Caes.  Plin.

/2 deer: red deer (Cervus elaphus L.)  ► cervus, i m.  ¶ B 1, 66, in description of Kublai Khan's hunting-grounds at Xanada, probably of either the Central Asian red deer or the Sika deer: "Ibi sunt cervi, dammulae, capreoli."   ►► Cervus may be extended to include Asian and New World deer (such as the white-tailed or Virginia deer) similar to the red deer or Europe.  || EL: cerf élaphe; cervo nobile, cervo europeo; ciervo común, ciervo rojo, venado; Rothirsch.

/2 deer: reindeer, caribou (Rangifer tarandus L.)  ► tarandrus, i m.  ¶ Plin. ►► Members of the species Rangifer tarandus living in North American are generally called "caribou"; reinder and caribou are not distinct animals.

/2 deer: roe, roe-deer, roebuck (Capreolus capreolus L.)  ► capreolus, i m.  ¶ Verg.  Col.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 66, in description of Kublai Khan's hunting-grounds at Xanada, probably of the Siberian roe-deer: "Ibi sunt cervi, dammulae, capreoli."  ►► EL: chevreuil; capriolo; corzo; Reh.

/2 dog breeder  ► cynotrophus, i* m.  ¶ Anc. Gr.

/2 dog breeding  ► cynotrophia, ae* f.

/2 dog: ? canis fricâtor (1811 PALLAS 62)

/2 dog: bloodhoud  canis indagâtor (Ducange s.v. bracco in def.)  ► canis sagax (Ducange s.v. bracco in def.)  ► bracco, ôni+ m. (Duncage)

/2 dog: chihuahua  canis pumilus Mexicânus (cf. canis pumilus, 1811 PALLAS 58)

/2 dog: greyhound  vertragus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 60)

/2 dog: guard-dog  canis vigilax (EGGER S.L. 61)

/2 dog: lap dog, little dog  canis Melitaeus

/2 dog: mastiff  ► mastînus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 381: "Et ipsi vocantur cynuchi, id est illi qui tenent canes mastinos."

/2 dog: Molosser (group including several breeds of large, strongly-built dogs, including bulldogs, mastiffs, boxers, Great Danes, Newfoundlands, rottweilers, etc.)  ► Molossus, i m.

/2 dog: Pomeranian  canis Pomerânus (1811 PALLAS 62)

/2 dog: poodle  canis aquaticus (Linn.; 1811 PALLAS 62)

/2 dog: Samoyed  canis Samoiedicus

/2 dog: sled-dog  ► canis trahârius  ¶ LRL.  Cf. 1811 PALLAS 59: "Camtschatici canes a primâ iuventute ad trahendas trahas docti."  Cf. also 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 48, describing the use of sled-dogs in the fur-trade (in a northern region, probably modern Russia): "In quolibet vico servantur canes magni ut asini circa quadraginta. Hi canes assueti et docti sunt trahere trahas ... Ad unam autem traham sex canes ligant ordine congruo."

/2 dog: spaniel  ► canis avicularius  ¶ Linn.  1811 PALLAS 60.

/2 donkey: onager, Asian wild ass (Equus hemionus)  ► onâgrus, i m.  ¶ Verg.  Plin.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 17.  ► asinus silvestris  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 381.

/2 elephant: mammoth   mammûthus, i* (scientific name)  ► elephantus primigenius (scientific name; EGGER D.L. 50)

/2 feline: cat (Felis catus L.)  ► catta, ae f.  ¶ Mart. 13, 29, 1.  DUCANGE: "CATTA, CATTUS, CATUS, GATTUS, Felis, nostris chat."  9th c. Joannes Diaconus, Vita sancti Gregorii papae 2, 60 (PL 75, 24): "quidam eremitarum, vir magnae virtutis, qui nihil in mundo possidebat praeter unam cattam, quam blandiens crebro quasi cohabitatricem in suis gremiis refovebat."  ►cat(t)us, i m.  ¶ Pallad. 4, 9, 4.  Ducange.  1811 PALLAS 28.  ► gatta, ae+ f.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 63.  ► gattus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange.  ► mûrilegus, i m.  ¶ Ducange.  Ducange s.v.cattus, quoting Ugutio: "Catus dicitur veluti cautus, unde hic catus, quodam animal ingeniosum, sicut murilegus, quam alii dicunt gatus, per g scilicet corrupte."  ► mûriceps, cipis m.  ¶ Ducange.

/2 feline: cheetah, hunting leopard (Acinonyx jubata)  ► panthêra vênâtôria  ¶ Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 380: "leopardos ad venationem aptos."  Cf. 1811 PALLAS 20: felis venatoria.  ||  Cheetahs have since antiquity been domesticated and trained for hunting (especially in the Mideast and India); thus the name "hunting leopard" in several languages.  See these passages referring to Kublai Khan's "tame leopards," undoubtedly cheetahs:  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 380: "Habet autem leopardos ad venationem aptos satis."  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 66: "Saepe autem venatur ibi rex, et super equum suum in quo sedet post se defert domesticum leopardum quem ad cervum vel ad dammulam provocat."  Ibid. 2, 17: "Habet magnus Kaam pro suo solacio ... leoperdos multos domesticos qui ad venationes cum hominibus assueti sunt."  ► panthêra iubâta  ¶ Cf. Linn.: felis iubata.  Cf. 1811 PALLAS 20: felis iubata.  ► ? gatopardus, i* m.  ¶ Mod. Gr.   ►► EL: guépard; ghepardo; Gepard, Jagdleopard; γατόπαρδος, τσίτα; Dutch jachtluipaard, gepard; Port. chita, guepardo, leopardo-caçador; Pol. gepard; Russ. Гепард; Hind. chītā (from Sanskrit chitraka, speckled). 

/2 feline: cougar (Puma concolor L.)  ► puma, ae* f.  ¶

/2 feline: jaguar (Panthera onca L.)  ► iaguâra, ae* f. /

/2 feline: leopard (Panthera pardus)  ► leopardus, i m.  ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 109.

/2 feline: lion (Panthera leo)  ► leo, leônis m.  ¶

/2 feline: lynx (genus Lynx; formerly Felix lynx L.)  ► lynx, lyncis m./f.  ¶ Verg.  Hor.

/2 feline: panther  ► panthêra, ae f.  ¶ CIC.  1811 PALLAS 3.

/2 feline: snow leopard, ounce (Uncia uncia)  ► ? onca, ae f.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 3.

/2 feline: tiger (Panthera tigris)  ► tigris, is (or -idis) f.  ¶

/2 furs: ermine coat or stole  ► vellus Armêniacum  ¶ Ducange s.v. ermena in definition.

/2 furs: ermine, stoat (Mustela erminea L.)  ► mus Ponticus  ¶ Plin.  Ducange s. vv. armelinusermena, and hermellina in definition.  ► mus Armênius  ► erminea, ae+ f.  ¶ Ducange. Linn. in species name.  ► erminea, ae+ f.  ¶ Ducange s.v. hermellina, subheading Hermeniae pelles.  ► ermineum, i* n.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 11.  ► ermîna, ae+ f.  ¶ Ducange s. vv. ermineaand erminus.  ► ermellînus, i+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 372, in description of Kublai Khan's game park.  ► ermelînus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange s.v. hermellina, quoting Petrus Damianus (Epist. 2, 2): "Ovium itaque simul et agnorum descipiuntur exuviae; ermelini, gebellini, martores exquiruntur et vulpes."  ► hermelînus, i+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 383 et passim.  ►armelînus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 56: "Deferuntque sub vestibus superioribus pelles delicatas vulpium, variorum, aut etiam armelinorum."  Christopher Columbus, in the margin of his copy of Marco Polo B 3, 48 (where the text has "almellini").  ► harmelînus, i+ m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 20.  ► hermellîna, ae+ f.  ¶ Ducange.  |  adj.  ► ermelînus, a, um+  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 352: "Divites homines vestiunt pannos aureos et de sirico et pulchras pelles zebellinas et ermelinas."  ► armellînus, a, um+  ¶ Ducange s.v. armellina, quoting an 11th c. testament: "Meas pellicias, unam martrinam et aliam armellinam, vendite, ut melius potueritis."  ►► Ducange s.v. hermellina: "HERMELLINA, Mus Ponticus, nostris hermine, ab Armenia dictus, quod inde eius modi murium pelles in Europam adveherentur; nam Hermeniam pro Armenia dixere scriptores Latini recentiores."  ||  OED s.v. ermine, etymological note (after giving theory of derivation from OHG. harmîn): "A different hypothesis (favoured by Littré, Paul Meyer, and others) is that the Romanic words represent L. Armenius Armenian. The mus Ponticus, 'Pontic rat', mentioned by Pliny as a fur-bearing animal, is commonly supposed, though without actual proof, to be the ermine; and as Pontus and Armenia were conterminous, it has been suggested that an alternative name for the animal may have been mus Armenius. That some animal was known by this designation in the second century is rendered probable by a passage in Julius Pollux (c A.D. 180), who (Onomast. VII. 60) gives it as the name of an Armenian garment, and, amongst other conjectures as to the origin of the word, suggests that this article of dress may have been so named because made of the skins of 'the mice (or rats) of that country'. The belief that the ermine derived its name from Armenia was common in the 14th c., and the supposition accounts quite satisfactorily for the Romanic forms of the word. If this view be correct, it involves the consequence that the resemblance in sound between ermine and OHG. harmîn was merely accidental; there may however have been an early confusion between two distinct words of similar sound and meaning."

/2 furs: marten (genus Martes)  ► martes, is f.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 9.

/2 furs: mink (Mustela lutreola L.)  ►   ►► Mustela lutreola is the European mink; the American mink is Mustela vison, also called Neovison vison."  ||  ? lutreola, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 8)

/2 furs: sable (Martes zibellina L.)  ► zibellîna, ae+ f.  ¶ Linn. in species name.  1811 PALLAS 4. \ cebelîna, ae+ f.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 56: "Utuntur etiam pellibus animalium quae cebelinae dicuntur, quae delicatae nimum sunt et pretiosae."  ► zembelînus, i+ m.  ¶ c.1300 A 383: "Sunt illae pelles maximi valoris, et maxime pelles de zembelino."  ► zambelînus, i+ m.  ¶c.1300 MARCO POLO A 482.  ► zambellînus, i+ m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 20.  ► sabellînus, i+ m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 50.  |  adj.  ► zebellînus, a, um+  ¶ c.1300MARCO POLO A 352: "Divites homines vestiunt pannos aureos et de sirico et pulchras pelles zebellinas et ermelinas."  ► cebellînus, a, um+  ¶ "Haec pelles cebellinae vocantur."  ► zambellînus, a, um+  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 478: "Hae pelles vocantur zambellinae."  

/2 furs: wolverine (Gulo gulo L.)  ► gulo, onis m.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 9.

/2 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis L.)  ► camêlopardalis, is f.  ¶ Varr.  ► camêlopardalus, i m.  ¶ Hist. Aug.  Vulg. Deut.  ► camêlopardus, i m.  ¶ Isid.  ► zirâfa, ae+ f.  ¶ c.1300MARCO POLO A 471, in description of Zanzibar: "Ipsi habent zirafas pulchriores de mundo ... Ipsae habent crura curta, et sunt aliquantulum bassae retro, quia crura posteriora sunt parva et gambae anteriores sunt multum longae ... Habent parvum caput et longum collum et non faciunt aliquod malum alicui."  Cf. Arabic  زرافة zarāfah.  Cf. also Old Span. azorafa, 17th-c. Eng. ziraph.  ►giraffa, ae+ f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 474.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 41 (in passage parallel to the one quoted above): "Ibi sunt gyraffae multae collum longum habentes ... Capita vero earum sunt parva et color earum varius, albus, rubeus. Animalia quidem mansueta sunt gyraffae praedictae et neminem laedunt." 

/2 hamster  ► cricetus, i m.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 11.

/2 insect  insectum, i n. (PLIN.; 1811 PALLAS vi)  ► bestiola, ae f., animalculum, i* (1540 VIVES Exer. 342: "nihil horum animalculorum, quibus per aestatem in cubiculus infestamur, tam movet nauseam quam cimices"; 1784 DUCRUE 251: "quod lecti et vestes pediculis at aliis animalculis scateant"; cf. 1811 PALLAS vii: "minutorum autem animalculorum, quae insecta vocantur")

/2 insect: bedbug  cimex, icis m. (1540 VIVES Exer. 342)

/2 insect: beetle  scarabaeus, i m.

/2 insect: cricket  grillus, i m.

/2 insect: grasshopper  locusta, ae f.

/2 insect: grasshopper: locust  cohortalis locusta (1811 PALLAS x)

/2 insect: mosquito  ► culex, icis m.  ¶ Plin.  Hor.  1794 RUIZ xv.

/2 insect: spider  ► arânea, ae f.  ►► Particularly scary or loathsome spiders might be called tarantula (see discussion under the entry wolf spider).

/2 insect: spider: tarantula (family Theraphosidae)  ►   ►► The name tarantula has been transferred to this family in English and American Spanish, but not in the other major European languages.

/2 insect: spider: wolf spider (family Lycosidae) (formerly called tarantula in English)  ► tarantula, ae* f.  ¶ 1654 musical score of a tarantella (reprinted in Albert Czerwinski, Geschichte der Tanzkunst [Leipzig, 1862], 56), as section heading: "antidotum tarantulae."  1704 BAGLIVI 628 (in a paper entitled De anatome, morsu et effectibus tarantulae), relating the oft-repeated story (or legend) of how the frenzied tarantella originated as a therapy for a poisonous spider's bite: "Urgente tamen morbo, vocati sunt cytharoedi, qui prope lectulum patientis stantes interpellarunt eam a cuiusnam coloris vel magnitudinis tarantulâ demorsa esset, ut familiarem talis speciei tarantulae sonum inchoarent. Et cum respondisset se nescire a tarantulâne an a scorpione puncta esset, illi statim duo vel tria sonorum genera instituerunt ... Audito tamen quarto a reliquis diverso, statim suspirare coepit, et se temperare nesciens a vehementissimis insultibus quos musica intus excitabat, solutis omnibus verecundiae limitibus, fere nuda prodiit e lecto, vehementissime saltare coepit, et ita per triduum consueto more continuando, ab omnibus symptomatibus libera evasit."  1724ZWINGER 1, 130: "ut in morsu viperae, canis rabidi, puncturâ tarantulae, in esu cicutae."  LINN., as the species name of a large wolf spider native to southern Italy, Lycosa tarantula, traditionally supposed to be that called tarantula in medieval and early modern texts.  1801 Mém. Turin 6, 245, referring to Giorgio Baglivi's paper, quoted above: "Baglivium vero mirabiliter nimis amplificasse de illâ araneae specie quae tarantulae nomine ceteris distinguitur disserentem, omnes concedunt."  1846 HOEVEN 70, in a chapter entitled "Chorea epidemica": "A tarantulâ demorsi paulo post humi concidunt semimortui, cum totali virium et sensuum iacturâ ... Inchoato musices sono sensim mitescere incipiunt symptomata ante dicta; aeger digitos, manûs, mox pedes movere incipit et successive cetera membra, crescenteque sonorum modulamine motus ipse membrorum augetur, et si patiens humi iacet, vehementissime in pedes elevatur, saltationes inchoat, suspirat et modis fere admirandis contorquetur."  ► tarentula, ae+ f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 461, of a spider of India, the direction of whose approach was treated as an omen: "Si venit ibi aliqua tarentula, de quibus sunt ibi multae, attendunt a quâ parte venit" (where the old Florentine version has "tarantola," the old French version "tarantule").  ►► From the 14th through 17th centuries, reports circulated of a disease called tarantismus, originating in the region around Taranto (ancient Tarentum, in southern Italy), believed to be triggered by the bite of a spider called tarantula, whose victims, called tarantati, could be cured only by a frenetic dance called the tarantella.  Many believe the real cause of the strange symptoms attributed to this tarantula (distinct from the large New World spider that now goes by that name) was not a spider at all, but a sort of mass hysteria, which the popular imagination associated with Lycosa tarantula or some other of the spiders that teem in southern Italy. (Europe was swept in the medieval and early modern periods with recurrent waves of manic dancing – chorea epidemica in medical Latin.)  Given the word's fabulous, non-scientific associations, Latin tarantula might well be extended to any spider viewed as uncannily large, gruesome, or dangerous.

/2 insect: tick  ricinus, i m.

/2 jackal  canis aureus (Linn.; 1811 PALLAS 39)  ► thôs, thôis m. (PLIN.; 1811 PALLAS 40)

/2 llama  ovis Indica, ae f. (Acosta De Nat. Orbis Novi  I:XXI: "Pecudes illas mirabiles habent quas Indi llama, nostri Indicas oves vocant, quae praeter lanam et carnes, quas vestiendo  et alendo generi Indorum praebent, sunt etiam iumenta vehendis oneribus commodissima. Nam dimidium oneris muli cuiusvis portant; sunt autem minimi sumptus quippe quibus neque ferro ad calces neque clitelia ad dorsum neque vero hordeo ad pabulum opus sit.")

/2 lemur  lemur, lemuris m. (*) (1811 PALLAS 4)

/2 marmot  mus Alpînus (PLIN. 8, 132)  ►► ? marmôta, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 9: "marmota quebecana [empetra]")

/2 mongoose (various members of the family Herpestidae, esp. the Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon L.)  ► ichneumon, onis m.  ¶ Cic.  Plin. 8, 87: "Natura ... primum hebetes oculos huic malo [scil. serpentibus] dedit ... deinde internecivum bellum cum ichneumone."  Mart. 7, 87, 5: "delectat Marium si perniciosus ichneumon."  Linn. as species name.

/2 moose (U.S.), elk (Br.)  alcês, is f. (CAES.; 1811 PALLAS 9)

/2 opposum  didelph?, dis m. (1811 PALLAS 4)

/2 porcupine (families Hystricidae and Erethizontidae)  ► hystrix, icis f.  ¶ Plin.  ► porcus spinôsus  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 331 (in the corresponding passage in MARCO POLOB 1, 33, called sus spinosa).

/2 porcupine: hedgehog  ► êricius, ii m.  ¶ Varr.  ► êrinâceus, i m.  ¶ Plin.

/2 possum, opossum  didelphys (or -is)* (SMITH)

/2 primate: ape, great ape, anthropoid ape (family Hominidae, encompassing chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans)   ► satyrus, i m.  ¶ Plin. 

/2 primate: ape: bonobo, pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus)  ►

/2 primate: ape: chimpanzee (genus Pan)  ► anthrôpopithêcus, i* m.  ¶  ► ? simpanzêus, i* m.

/2 primate: ape: gorilla (genus Gorilla)  ► gorilla, ae* f.  ¶

/2 primate: ape: orangutan (genus Pongo)  ► orangutânus, i* m.  ¶ ►► Marco Polo (B 3, 18) is probably passing on an account of the orangutan in this passage (part of a description of Sumatra): "Sunt ibi homines multi qui habent caudas ut canis, longitudinis palmae unuis. Hi homines non sunt in civitatibus sed in montibus habitant."  [see first clear description of orangutan in Jakob Bondt; Linné's Homo silvestris.]

/2 primate: baboon  ► cynocephalus, i m.  ¶  ► ? maimon, ônis+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 474: "Ibi sunt simiae, cati pauli et cati maimones."  In old French version: "Il ont gat paulz et autre gat maimon," translated by Yule (2, 431), "baboons and other monkeys".  Marcello Ciccuto, ed., Marco Polo, Il milione (Milan: Rizzoli, 1955), p. 434, n. 26, in note on "gatti mamoni" (in old Florentine version): "Babbuini; in arabo maymūn significa 'scimmia' 'che in Occidente si è incrociato col Mammone biblico' (Cardona)."  Cf. 1766 LINN. SystNat. 35: "Simia maimon," of mandrill.

/2 primate: baboon: mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx)  ► mandrillus, i* m. /

/2 rat  rattus, i+ m. (1811 PALLAS 6)

/2 reindeer  tarandrus, i m. (PLIN.)  ► tarandus, i m. (Anc. Gr.; Linn.; 1811 PALLAS 3)  ► rangifer, eri* m. (1811 PALLAS 53)

/2 reptiles  reptilia, ium n. pl. (1811 PALLAS x)

/2 rhinoceros  ► rhinoceros, ôtos m.  ¶   ►► Cf. asinus Indicus, Plin. 11, 266, identified in Loeb translation as rhino; but seems mixed up in unicorn legends.

/2 rodent

/2 seal  phôca, ae f., vitula marina

/2 sloth  bradypûs, podis m. (1811 PALLAS 4)

/2 snake: rattlesnake  serpens sistrifer (v. crotalophorus)

/2 snake-charmer  ► serpentium incantâtor  ¶ CGL 4, 536, 21, of the Marsi, mentioned in following quote.  974 RATHERIUS Praeloquia 1, 7 (PL  136, 152) : "Psylli in Africa, Marsi fuerunt in Italiâ incantatores serpentium."  Pliny (7, 13) said of these peoples: "Horum corpori ingenitum fuit virus exitiale serpentibus et cuius odore sopirent eas."  Cf. 11th-c. THOMAS CANTIMPRATENSIS,De natura rerum, ed. Helmut Boese (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1973), 8, 2 (p. 277): "Aspis ... quorundam virtute vocabulorum incantatur, ne veneno interimat, vel ideo, ut quidam dicunt, ut quieta possit capi."  Cf. also c.1300 MARCO POLO A 452, of shark-charmers, who protected Indian pearl-divers: "Et mercatores ... donant illi qui incantat pisces, quod non laedant homines qui vadunt sub aquâ pro perlis, de viginti partibus unam; et isti sunt vocati abanamayn, id est incantatores ... Et isti incantant omnem bestiam et omnem avem."  ► serpentium stupefactor*  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 23 (in a passage parallel to the one quoted above): "Conducunt ... magos quosdam qui dicuntur abrayanna, qui cum incantationibus suis et arte diabolicâ cogunt et stupefaciunt pisces illos ita ut neminem possunt laedere."  For the noun stupefactor, see 1650 Jan Jonston, Historia naturalis de piscibus (Frankfurt, 1650), 30, as an alternate name for the torpedo, or electric ray. ► ophiopaecta, ae* m.  ¶ Anc. Gr.  οφιοπα í κτης .  For a similarly-formed word used in Latin, cf. sphaeropecta.

/2 squirrel  ► sciûrus, i m.  ¶  ► erculînus, i+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 478-79, of inhabitants of Russia or Central Asia: "Capiunt illa animalia parva quae habent pelles multum delicatas, sicut sunt rondes, hermelini, herculini, varii, vulpes nigrae, et aliae similes."

/2 walrus  rosmarus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 4)

/2 worm: earthworm  lumbricus terrestris (Pharm. Bat. III. 149)

/2 zebra: equus tigrinus; hippotigris (Anc. Gr. D.C.77.6 ἱππότιγρις), < ? zebra -ae f, ? equus zebra (indecl adi)

/2 z imaginary: griffin (creature with lion's body, eagle's head and wings)  ► gryps, gryphis m.  ¶ Plin.  Sid.  ► gryphus, i m.  ¶ Mel.  Cf. DUCANGE: "GRIFFUS ... Gryps, gryphus, quadrepes alatum, sed fabulosum."  ► griffo, ônis+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 470, applying the term to the roc or rukh or Arab lore, the elephant-devouring monster-bird that sunk Sinbad's ship: "Sunt ibi aves griffones ... sed non sunt sic facti ut dicitur, id est quod sint medii avis et medii leo, sed sunt facti ut aquilae, et sic sunt fortes quod accipiunt elephantem et portant eum in aere ... Illi de illâ insulâ vocant aves griffones ruch."

/2 z imaginary: unicorn  ► unicornis, i m.  ¶ Vulg. Ps. 91, 11, translating the Hebrew re'em: "Et exaltabitur sicut unicornis cornu meum et senectus mea in misericordiâ uberi."  Vulg. Is. 34, 7, translating the Hebrew re'em: "Et descendent unicornes cum eis et tauri cum potentibus."  Physiologus Latinus 126, quoted below.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 444, describing a region of Java: "Habent elephantes silvestres satis et unicornes, qui non sunt multo minores. Isti unicornes habent pilum bufalinum et habent pedes sicut elephantes; in medio frontis unum cornu grossum ... et est turpis bestia, et non est sicut dicitur quod se permittat capi pulcellae [scil. virgini], sed est contrarium."  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 15 (in a passage parallel to the preceding one): "Ibi sunt unicornes magni valde, qui parum minores sunt elephantibus. Unicornis enim pilum habet bubali, pedem autem habet ad similitudinem elephantis, caput habet ut aper ... In luto libenter moratur et est animal valde turpe. In fronte mediâ cornu unicum habet grossum valde et nigrum."  ► ûnicornus, i+ m.  ¶ Duncage.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 409.  ► monoceros, ôtis m.  ¶ Plin. 8, 76: "asperrimam autem feram monocerotem, reliquo corpore equo similem, capite cervo, pedibus elephanto, caudâ apro, mugitu gravi, uno cornu nigro mediâ fronte cubitorum duum eminente."  Vulg. Ps. 91, 11 (alternate version), translating the Hebrew re'em: "Et exaltabitur quasi monocerotis cornu meum et senecta mea in oleo uberi."  Physiologus Latinus 126: "Est aliud animal quod Graece dicitur monoceros, Latine vero unicornis ... Habet in capite unum cornu atque nullus venatorum eum capere potest, sed hoc argumento capiunt illum: ducunt puellam virginem in illum locum ubi moratur."   ►► Ancient conceptions of an animal called monoceros or unicornis (such as Pliny's grotesquely fanciful portrait) seem to have arisen from a conflation of factual accounts of the rhinoceros, antilope, and wild ass.  From these evolves the medieval legend of a gentle and graceful beast, mysteriously beautiful, that lets itself be tamed by a maiden.  Marco Polo, applying the term unicornis to the real rhinoceroses of Java (see Yule 2, 290), is disappointed to see how little they resemble the creature he knows from 13th-century art and fable.

/21

/21    ANIMAL MATTERS

/21 animal  ► bestia, ae f.  ► animal brûtum  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 332: "Simplicissima substantiarum, quae Deus est, in homine magis redolet quam in bruto animali, in bruto animali magis quam in planta, in hac quam in minera."  ► brûtum, i n.  ¶ 1726 Wolff 36: "Neque in hôc statu a brutis differt homo."  ► animal, âlis n. (usually of all living beings, including humans, but sometimes in the more restricted sense)  ¶ VARR.  SEN.  PLIN.

/21 animal shelter  ►

/21 bird-feeder  ►

/21 breed (of animal)  ► sêminium, i n.  ¶ Varr.  Lucr.

/21 cub, puppy, kitten, young (of most mammals)  ► catulus, i m.

/21 hibernation  ► veternus, i m.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 44.

/21 insect: exterminator  ►

/21 insecticide  ► venenum contra insecta  ► insecticîdium, i* n.

/21 insecticide: bug spray  ►

/21 kennel  ►

/21 kennel: boarding kennel  ► canum hospitium  ► zôodochîum, i* n.

/21 larva  ►

/21 larva: caterpillar  ► êrûca, ae f.  ¶ Col.  PLIN.

/21 larva: chrysalis  ► chrysallis, idis f.  ¶ PLIN. 11, 112.

/21 larva: cocoon  ►

/21 larva: pupa  ►

/21 pet (an animal)  vb.  ► (manu) demulcêre

/21 pet store  ►  zôopôlium, i n.  ► thêriopôlium, i n.

/21 pet, animal companion  ► animal familiâre  ► pecusculum familiâre  ►► Animal domesticum includes farm animals (see, e.g., 1811 PALLAS 4).

/21 thoroughbred  ►

/21 venom (of snake or other poisonous animal)  ► fel, fellis n.  ¶ Verg. A. 12, 856-57: "sagitta,  ¶ armatam saevi Parthus quam felle veneni."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 403: "Quando coluber venit per istum locum et percutit se in isto ferro ... statim moritur, et accipiunt eum statim et trahunt sibi fel ... quia est optima medicina ad morsum canis rabidi."  ► fel vipereum  ¶ Ov. Tr. 5, 7, 15-16, of the barbarous Getae: "In quibus est nemo qui non coryton et arcum  ¶ telaque vipereo lurida felle gerat."  ► vîrus, i n.  ¶  ► venênum, i n.

/21 veterinarian  ► veterinârius, i m.  ¶ Col.  ► medicus veterinârius  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 16.

/21 veterinarian's office, animal hospital  ► veterinârium, i n.  ¶ HygGrom.

/21 veterinary  ► veterinârius, a, um  ¶ Col.  1826 LÜDERS 14.

/21 veterinary medicine  ► medicîna veterinâria  ¶ Col.

/22

/22    ANIMAL PARTS

/22 antlers  cornua palmata n. pl. (1811 PALLAS 53)

/22 claw (of cat, tiger, etc.)  falcula, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 29 et passim)

/22 elephant: trunk (of elephant)  ► proboscis, idis f.  ¶ PLIN.   ► manus, ûs f.  ¶ CIC.

/22 elephant: tusk (of elephant), ivory  ► dens Indus  ¶ Ov.  ► dens elephantis  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 469: "In universo etiam mundo non est tanta negotiatio dentium elephantum sicut ... in insulâ quae dicitur Zanzibar."  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 23: "Ad cuius portum conveniunt negotiatores Indorum deferentes aromata et margaritas et ... dentes elephantorum et alia pretiosa." 

/22 fish: fin, flipper  ► pinna, ae f. \ Plin. 9, 13, 15, of seals: "Pinnis, quibus in mari utuntur, humi quoque vice pedum serpunt."

/22 fish: gills  ► branchiae, arum f. pl. \ Col.  \ Plin.

/22 tail: wag the tail (of dog)  caudam movêre (Gell. 5, 14: "caudam more adulantium canum blande movet."  ► caudâ adûlâri (1540 VIVES Exer. 286: "Ruscio, huc, canicule festivissime; en ut caudâ adulatur, ut se in se in posteriores pedes erigit."  ► caudâ blandiri (1811 PALLAS 40: "vidi e Persia adlatum homini adblandientem, et in dorso ludibunde se provolentem, ut canes faciunt," of a jackal)  ► caudam iactare (Pers. 4, 15)

/24

/24    FISH

/24 /seafood  fructus maris (TERT.)  ► pisces, ium m. pl. (PLIN.)

/24 anchovy  maena, ae f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 356, and trans. by Calero, p. 86)

/24 cuttlefish  ► sêpia, ae f.  ¶ Cic.  Plin.  1752 STUMPF 30.

/24 herring  harengus, i+ m. (EGGER S.L. 34)

/24 pike  ► lûcius, a, um  ¶ Aus.  1752 STUMPF 30.

/24 salmon  salmo, ônis m. (PLIN.; Aus.)

/24 shark  canis marînus  ►► pristis (EGGER D.L. 20)

/24 shell: sea-shell  concha, ae f., conchylium, i n. (1798 DESFONTAINES iii: "in montibus ... longe a mari distantes, immensas conchyliorum marinorum congeries detexi."  |  gather sea-shells conchas (v. conchylia) legere (CIC. de Orat. 2, 22: "conchas eos et umbilicos ad Caietam et ad Laurentum legere consuesse et ad omnem animi remissionem ludumque descendere")

/24 shellfish (shell-covered marine animal: crustacean or shelled mollusk)  conchylium, i n., concha, ae f., testaceum i n. (PLIN. 32, 58; Bonon. Acad. I, 72: "marina quaedam testacea." ► crustâtum, i n. (PLIN. 11, 165)  ►► Conandum accurate scire quid haec apud Plinium valeant; item "mollia" por "mollusks."

/24 shellfish: crustaceans (subphylum Crustacea, Brünnich, 1772)  crustâcea, orum n. pl.

/24 shellfish: mollusks (phylum Mollusca L.)  mollia, ium n. pl. (PLIN. 11, 267)  ► mollusca, orum n. pl. (Linné, 1758)

/24 squid  (order Teuthida)  lôlîgo, inis f. (CIC.; HOR.; PLIN.)

/24 squid: giant squid (genus Architeuthis)  lôlîgo gigantêa (v. decumâna v. praegrandis)  ►► EL: Fr. calmar géant; architeuthis, calamare gigante; calamar gigante; Riesenkalmare

/24 torpedo ray, torpedo fish, electric ray (families Torpedinidae and Narcinidae)  ► torpêdo, inis f.  ¶ Cic.  Plin.  Linn. as species name.

/24 tuna  ► thunnus, i m.  ¶ Hor.  Plin.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 476.

/6

/6     FAMOUS PEOPLE

/6 Aquinas, Thomas  Thomas Aquinas (Thomae Aquinâtis) (1652 TURS. 208)

/6 Averroes  ► Averroês, is m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 195.  1794 RUIZ i.

/6 Avicenna  < Avicenna, ae m. \ 1569 MERCURIALE 8 et passim: "Galenus atque Avicenna, celebratissimi medicinae scriptores."  \ 1652 TURS. 195.  \ 1843 TRAPPEN 8.

/6 Bayle, Pierre  Baylius, Petrus

/6 Boccaccio  Ioannes Boccatius, i m. (1540 VIVES Exer. 332)  ► Ioannes Boccacius (1652 TURS. 227)

/6 Bourbon (name of a noble family, including kings of France and Spain)  Borbonius, i m. (1652 TURS. 252: Carolus Borbonius Dux, et passim)

/6 Calvin, John  Ioannes Calvînus (1652 TURS. 258)  |  adj.  Calviniânus, a, um

/6 Cervantes  ► Cervantesius, i m.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v (referring to another Spaniard of the same name)

/6 Charlemagne  Carolus Magnus (1652 TURS. 147)

/6 Charles Martel  Carolus Martellus (1652 TURS. 141)

/6 Columbus  Christophorus Columbus Genuensis (1652 TURS. 245)

/6 Confucius  ► Confucius, i m.  ¶ 1726 Wolff 10.  |  Confucian  ► Confuciânus, a, um  ¶ 1726 Wolff 10: "principia philosophiae practicae Confuciana."  ►► Confutsiânus, i m. (EGGERD.L. 10)

/6 Cortés, Hernán  Ferdinandus Cortesius (1652 TURS. 253)

/6 Dante Alighieri  DANTEs Alagherius (Dantis Alagherii) (DANTE Aqua 479; EGGER L.D.I. 109)

/6 El Cid (Campeador), Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar  ► Roderîcus Campiâtor  ¶ Ducange s.v. campiator, citing several sources, including a letter attributed to the warrior's wife Jimena (Latin Eximêna ).

/6 Erik the Red Ericus Rufus  (cf. Rafn)

/6 Farnese (Renaissance Italian family)  Farnesius, i m. (1652 TURS. 379: familia Farnesiorum)

/6 Ferdinand and Isabella  Ferdinandus et Elizabetha Hispaniae reges (1652 TURS. 245)

/6 Francis Xavier  Franciscus Xaverius (1652 TURS. 255)

/6 Frederick Barbarossa  Friderîcus Aenobarbus (1652 TURS. 196: "Barbarussa vulgo dicitur")

/6 Galileo  \\ Galilaeus Florentînus (1652 TURS. 347)

/6 Hitler  Hitlerus, i m. (C.S. Lewis)  |  adj.  Hitleriânus, a, um (EGGER R.A. 112)

/6 Joan of Arc  (cf. 1652 TURS. 236: "Ioanna erat virgo Lotharinga viriles animos gerens")

/6 La Rochefoucauld (name of noble French family)  Rupifocaldus, i m.

/6 Leif Erikson Leivus Erici filius, Leivus Eiriki (cf. Rafn)

/6 Leonardo da Vinci  Leonardus Vincius (EGGER R.A. 141)

/6 Linnaeus, Linné  ► Carolus Linnaeus  ¶  |  adj.  ► Linnaeânus, a, um  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxiv.

/6 Luther, Martin  Martinus Lutherus (1652 TURS. 249; Gesenius 2)

/6 Maoist  Maotsetunganus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 37)

/6 Marco Polo  ► Marcus Paulus  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 299: "Hoc quidem narrat in praesenti opusculo ordinate dominus Marcus Paulus, Venetiarum civis."  ► Marcus Paulus Venetus ¶ 1811 PALLAS 16.  ► Paulus Venetus  ¶ 1652 TURS. 231.

/6 Marxist  Marxianus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 26)

/6 Medici (member of the Florentine ruling family)  Medicês, is (acc. -ên or -em) m. (1652 TURS. 244 et passim)  |  adj.  Medicêus, a, um (1652 TURS. 248 et passimSeptuagint, "Praef.": "Medicea bibliotheca"; EGGER R.A. 132)  |  Lorenzo de' Medici  Laurentius Medicêus (1652 TURS. 245)  |  Cosimo de' Medici  Cosmus Medicês (1652 TURS. 254, 256)  ► Cosmus Medicêus (1652 TURS. 241)  |  Marie de Médicis  Maria Medicêa (1652 TURS. 247)

/6 Michelangelo (Renaissance artist) Michaêl Angelus Bonarrotius (EGGER D.L. 42)  |  adj.  Bonarrotianus, a, um (EGGER R.A. 60)

/6 Michelangelo (Renaissance artist) : Pietà signum Perdolentis Virginis Mariae (Bacci IOE 43)

/6 Mother Teresa Theresia Mater a Calcutta (Certamen Vaticanum XXV 1982, H. Paoletta) [P. Owens]

/6 Muhammad, Muhammed, Mohammed  ► Macomêtus, i m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 313 et passim.  ► Machomêtus, i m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 332 et passim.  ►Machomettus, i m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 16, et passim.  ► Mahomêtes, is m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 132.  ► Mohammed, êdis m.  ¶ 1726 Wolff 18.  ► Muhamed, êdis m.  ¶ 1843TRAPPEN 11.

/6 Napoleon  Napoleon, ônis m. (EGGER R.A. 43, 73)  ► Napoleon, ntis m.;  adj.  Napoleônicus, a, um, Napoleonticus, a, um 1843 TRAPPEN 49: "sub imperio Napolentico"; 1843 TRAPPEN82: "sub tyrannide Napoleontica")

/6 Newton  Isaacus Neotonius (EGGER S.L. 40)  |  adj.  Neotonianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 41)

/6 Orange: Prince of Orange (noble title important in history of Netherlands)  princeps Aurantius (1652 TURS.  272: "Philippo Nassovia Aurantio principe," et passim)

/6 Petrarch  Franciscus Petrarcha (1652 TURS. 222)

/6 Pico della Mirandola  Picus Mirandulânus (1698 Hofmann s.v. Savanarola)

/6 Prester John  ► Presbyter Iohannes  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 52.

/6 Rabelais, François  Franciscus Rabelaesus (RABELAIS 936; 1698 Hofmann)

/6 Raphael (Renaissance artist)  Raphaêl Sanctius (Raphaêlis Sanctii) (EGGER D.L. 42; EGGER R.A. 73, 141)

/6 Roland, Orlando  Rolandus, i m. (1652 TURS. 144)

/6 Rubens, Peter Paul  ► Rubenius  ¶ Václav (Wenceslas) Hollar, inscription of copperplate portrait of Rubens: "Petrus Paulus Rubenius, pictorum Apelles, decus huius saeculi, orbis miraculum, aulam Hispanicam, Gallicam, Anglicam, Belgicam penicillo suo illustravit; quem gladio donavit Philippus Quartus Hispaniarum rex, et statuit sibi a secretis in sanctiore suo consilio Bruxellensi, et ad regem Angliae legatum extraordinarium misit."

/6 Saladin, Salah al-Din  Saladînus, i m. (1652 TURS. 199)

/6 Sforza (Milanese ruling family)  Sfortia, ae m. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia": "ex dono Maximiliani Sfortiae ducis Mediolanensis"; 1652 TURS. 236)

/6 Stuart (English royal family)  ► Stuartus, i m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 22: "si qui a Carolo Stuarto pseudolegati adsunt."

/6 Tamerlane, Timur  Tamerlanês, is m. (1652 TURS. 231; 1698 Hofmann s.v. Turcomania)

/6 Tamerlane: Timurid  Timurida, ae m.

/6 Titian (Renaissance artist)  Titiânus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 42; EGGER R.A. 24)

/6 Valois (name of a French royal family)  Valesius, i m. (1652 TURS. 274: Maragarita Valesius, "Marguérite de Valois"; 1652 TURS. 301: "moritur ... regina Margarita Valesia, in qua Valesiorum stirps regia penitus exstincta est")

/6 Vespucci, Amerigo  Americus Vespucius (1652 TURS. 245)

/6 Voltaire  Voltarius, i m. 1843 TRAPPEN 78) , Voltairius (Bambach)

/6 William the Conqueror  Guilelmus Conquestor (20th Latin inscription at his tomb in Norman church)

/6 Wycliffe, John  Viclefus, i m. (DUCANGE s.v. cantus ecclesiasticus)

/6 Zoroaster, Zarathushtra  Zôroastres, is m. (PLIN.; APUL.; 1652 TURS. 4: "Zoroastre ... magiae inventore."  |  adj.  Zôroastrêus, a, um (PRUD.)

/9

/9    CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES

/9 bless you! gesundheit!  (exclamation when someone has sneezed)  salve, Deus te tueatur

/9 bon appétit!  libenter cena (v. comede v. cenate v. comedite) (EGGER L.D.I. 83)  ► bene tibi (v. vobis) sapiat, bonam orexim (tibi exopto)

/9 bon voyage, have a good trip  sit tibi (v. vobis) iter laetum (EGGER L.D.I. 89)  ► bene ambula (EGGER L.D.I. 89)

/9 bravo!  ► sophôs!  ¶ PETR. 40, at the end of Trimalchio's impromptu lecture on astrology: "'Sophos!' universi clamamus, et sublatis manibus ad camaram iuramus Hipparchum Aratumque comparandos illi homines non fuisse."  MART. 6, 48: "Quod tam grande 'sophos' clamat tibi turba togata,  ¶ non tu, Pomponi, cena diserta tua est."

/9 cheers!  (salutation when drinking)  sit tibi (v. vobis) salutiferum, prosit tibi (v. vobis)  ► propîno tibi (v. vobis) salutem (EGGER L.D.I. 83)  ► feliciter (EGGER L.D.I. 83)

/9 date: what's the date today?  qui dies est hodie? (EGGER L.D.I. 100)  ► quotus dies est hodie?

/9 go to hell  abi in malam rem (PLAUT.)  ► abi in malam crucem (PLAUT.; Ter.)  ► quin tu abis in malam pestem (CIC. Phil. 13, 21)

/9 God forbid  \\ Deus prohibeat  \\ dii prohibeant  \\ Deus avertat  \\ dii avertant (v. averruncent)  \\ absit omen

/9 good-by  ► vale, valête  |  say goodby  ► (alicui) vale dîcere /

/9 have: you can have it  ► habeas tibi

/9 hello, good day, good morning, bonjour, buenos días  salve, salvus sis, precor tibi felicem hunc diem (1540 VIVES Exer. 323)

/9 hush, don't say such a thing, what a thing to say  bona verba (Ter.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 381, in dialogue between card-players: "Malim te mihi iudicem quam collusorem.  – Bona verba! Cur istuc quaeso?  – Qui es in ludendo admodum vafer")

/9 luck: good luck!  fêlîciter!  bene tibi (v. vobis) vertat!

/9 name: what is your name?  qui vocaris? quod tibi nomen est?

/9 night: good night  bene dormias, bene quiescas, molliter cubes

/9 no offense meant, forgive my bluntness  (formula for excusing a comment that might offend)  pace tuâ dixerim (HIER. Ep. 112, 19, responding to a question from Augustine about his edition of the Bible: "pace tuâ dixerim, videris mihi non intelligere quod quaesisti")

/9 old: how old are you?  quot annos natus es?  I'm older than Mark  Marco maior natu sum

/9 so help me God  sic me Deus adiuvet (from medieval English juror's oath, quoted by DUCANGE s.v. iurata)

/9 speak: do you speak Latin (French, Chinese)?  loquerisne Latine (Gallice, Sinice)?

/9 thanks, thank you  ► amo te merito  ► amo te (de aliquâ re)  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 352: "amo te de suillâ hac salitâ," spoken to a waiter ("thanks for this salted pork").  ► gratias tibi ago  ► gratiam tibi habeo

/9 thanks: no thanks  benignê (HOR.) tam gratia, tamquam  (Ter.)

/9 thanks: you're welcome  libenter, non est cur gratias agas, non est cur

/9 welcome  (as interjection upon another's arrival)  ► salvum te advenire gaudeo  ¶ Ter.  EGGER L.D.I. 89.  ► feliciter vêneris  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 320.  ► fêliciter  ¶ 1540VIVES Exer. 350: "Crito: Ecce tibi Simonides.  Scopas [host, addressing newly-arrived Simonides]: Feliciter.  Simonides: Et vobis fauste."  ► exspectatus (v. exoptatus) venis  ¶ Cf. CIC. Fam. 16, 7: "Ad nos amantissimos tui veni [imperative] ... Carus omnibus exspectatusque venies."  ► bene venis  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 493: "Quando isti duo ambaxiatores habuerunt ambaxiatam, statim equitaverunt et venerunt ad campum Archomac ... et salutaverunt eum curialiter. Et Archomac dixit quod bene venirent, et fecit eos sedere."

/9 where are you from?  cuias es? unde venis?

/9 yes  etiam, ita, sic, [repetition of main verb of question]

@Ciccuto ed. of Marco -- make it a bibliogr entry.

@find something on anc. vocab. of clothing

@gbooks -- "prismate coloribus" -- prism, color theory, etc.

@gbooks -- hinduismus, (h)indostanum, hamaxobiorum, nerdiludio, pyrobol(ista)(ia), rocheta, rochetus, bombus, globi recreativi

@greekreverse – - σφαιρ -, - ζωνιον

@jacket, coat -- gunella.  fur coat -- gunna.  skirt -- caltula.  find locos, clean up articles.

@nympheum -- check works cited in DC

01

01    LANGUAGE

01 articulate

01 articulate: inarticulate  inarticulâtus, a, um (Arn.; Prisc.; 1846 GROSSE 25: "clamores inarticulati audiebantur")

01 breathing: soft breathing (in Greek)  spiritus lenis (Gesenius 1)

01 circumlocution  periphrasis, is f., circumlocutio, onis f.

01 cognate  subst.  vocabulum cognâtum;  adj.  cognâtus, u, um (Gesenius x: linguae cognatae)

01 compound word  vocabulum compositum, verbum composition 1843 TRAPPEN 28)

01 dictionary, lexicon  lexicon, i n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 279: "lexicon ... Graecolatinum," Greek-Latin dictionary)  ► dictionarium, i n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 265: "habeat [discipulus] dictionarium Latinum et Anglicum, quod saepe consulat, ut sciat quid quodque vocabulum significet."  ► vocabularium, i n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 269: "vocabularium Latinae linguae habebit, Calepinum scilicet, aut Perottum, ad quem recurret haerens in Latina voce")

01 dictionary: thesaurus  thesaurus vocabulorum iuxta sensum ordinatorum, synônymôrum lexicon

01 etymology  (process or act of finding original form or source of a word)  etymologia, ae f., (verbi) originatio (QUINT. 1, 6, 28; EGGER R.A. 67: "non est qui has probet originationes."  ► verbi origo (QUINT. 1, 6, 28)  ► vocis origo (Gell. 13, 10, 1)  ► nominis origo (ISID. Etym. 10, 1)  |  (that original form or source itself)  etymon, i n. (VARR.; Gell.)  | What's the etymology of lucus?  Unde lucus originem duxit?  Quid luci etymon esse dixeris?  (Gell. 13, 10, 1: "quid 'sororis' etymon esse dixerit Labeo."  |  Isidore gives caelo beatusas the etymology of caelebs  Isidorus caelebs a verbis caelo beatus derivat  ►► Quintilian (1, 6, 28) lists Latin terms for etymology: "Etymologia, quae verborum originem inquirit, a Cicerone dicta est 'notatio,' quia nomen eius apud Aristotelen invenitur  s u m b o l o n , quod est 'nota.'  Nam verbum ex verbo ductum, id est 'veriloquium,' ipse Cicero qui finxit reformidat.  Sunt qui vim potius intuiti 'originationem' vocent."  CIC. Top. 2, 10: "tum notatio, cum ex vi verbi argumentum aliquid elicitur."  CIC. Top. 8, 35: "multa etiam ex notatione sumuntur.  Ea est autem, cum ex vi nominis argumentum elicitur: quam Graeci  ετυμολογιαν  vocant, id est verbum e verbo, 'veriloquium.'"  ISID. Etym. 10, 1: "Origo quorundam nominum, id est unde veniant, non paene omnibus patet."

01 etymology: derivative (word derived from another word)  derivatum, i* n. (1698 Hofmann iii)

01 etymology: to be derived from (of a word)  orîginem dûcere (v. trahere) 1843 TRAPPEN 69, of various words for "coffee": "quae omnes, quamvis diverse scribantur, a voce Arabicâ kahwa  originem trahere videntur."  ► etymon habere (VARR. R.R. 1, 48, 2: "videtur vocabulum [grumum] etymum habere a glubendo")

01 fluent:  I'm fluent in French, I speak French fluently  Gallice expedîte loquor, sermone Gallico promptus sum (SUET. Tib. 71: "sermone Graeco quamquam alioqui promptus et facilis, non tamen usque quaque usus est ")

01 guttural  gutturalis, e (Gesenius 1: litterae gutturales)

01 idiom, idiomatic expression  idiôma, atis n. (Charis.)

01 incorrect (of language): incorrect usage, mistake (in language usage)  barbarismus, i m. (of mistake by foreign speaker)  ► soloecismus, i m. (of non-standard usage of native speaker)

01 incorrect: speak a language incorrectly  barbarizare (of mistake by foreign speaker) (Boet.; DANTE Vulg. El. 300, comparing Apulian dialect to standard Italian: "Apuli ... turpiter barbarizant."  ► soloecizare (of non-standard usage of native speaker) (HOVEN citing ERASMUS)

01 Indo-European  Indeuropaeus, a, um, Indogermânicus, a, um (Gesenius x)  ►► Indicus-Europaeus (EGGER S.L. 74)

01 labial  labialis, e (Gesenius 3: soni labiales)

01 language  ► sermo, ônis m.  ► lingua, ae f.  ► idiôma, atis n.  ¶ ThLL.  LLN, defining as "proprietas linguae, lingua, sermo," and providing several quotes with the expression "Theutonicum idioma."  DANTE Vulg. El. 323 et passim.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 465, of a region of India: "habet proprium regem et proprium idioma."  1652 TURS. 383: "idiomate Catalonico."  1726WOLFF 80: " ex Gallico in idioma Latinum traductum."  1826 LÜDERS 17: "idiomate Germanico."  ► loquêla, ae f.  ¶ Ov.  DANTE Vulg. El. 324.

01 language: dialect  ► dialectus, i f.  ¶ Suet.  ► idiôma, atis n.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 2, of a German regional dialect: "idiomate Megapolitano."

01 language: patois

01 language: pidgin, creole, lingua franca

01 Latinist, scholar or student or enthusiast of Latin  Latinitatis (v. linguae Latinae) cultor (v. studiosus)

01 lexicographer  lexicographus, i m.

01 lexicography  lexicographia, ae f. (1698 Hofmann vi)

01 meaning (of a word)  significatio, ônis f., vis f., potestas, âtis f.

01 native tongue, native language  lingua vernacula (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261: "Britanni ex proprietate vernaculae linguae nonnumquam in temporibus peccant"; PERUGINI, Concordata 44)  ► lingua materna (PERUGINI, Concordata 44; cf. DANTE Vulg. El. 323: materna locutio)  ► patrium idiôma (1652 TURS. 313)

01 native tongue: vernacular: the vernacular (a native tounge learned at home, not school, contrasted with a scholarly or liturgical language, such as Latin, ancient Greek, or classical Arabic)  ► sermo vulgaris  ► lingua vulgaris  ¶ Cf. DANTE Vulg. El. 319: "Vulgarem locutionem appellamus eam quam infantes assuefiunt ab assistentibus ... quam sine omni regulâ, nutricem imitantes, accipimus."  |  in the vernacular  ► vernacule (adv.)  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 32: "Iter 50 milliarium cursu publico vehiculari, quem 'mitfahrender offener Post' dicimus, facit."

01 onomatopoeia  onomatopoeia, ae f. (Charis.)

01 onomatopoeic  onomatopoeticus, a, um* (Gesenius x)

01 profanity, bad words, foul or vulgar or obscene language, swearing, cursing  ► verba turpia (n. pl.)  ¶ Dig. 47, 10, 15, 21: "Qui turpibus verbis utitur, non temptat pudicitiam, sed iniuriarum tenetur."  ► verba obscêna (n. pl.)  ¶  ► verba spurca (n. pl.)  ¶ Cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 390: "Ne sint ... dictis spurci."  ► turpiloquium, i n.  ¶ TERT.  Ambros.  ► verba nupta(n. pl.) (words not appropriate for polite company, adult language)  ¶ Paul. ex Fest. p. 170 Müll.

01 profanity:  swear, curse  deierare (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 390: "ne sint blasphemi in Deum, aut deieratores, non in dictis spurci")

01 profanity: pardon my French, excuse the expression  (formulas for excusing indelicate language)  ► honos sit auribus  ¶ Curt. 5,  1, 38, of strippers at Babylonian revels: "Feminarum convivia ineuntium in principio modestus est habitus, dein summa quaeque amicula exuunt, paulatimque pudorem profanant, ad ultimum – honos auribus habitus sit – ima corporum velamenta proiciunt."  1540 VIVES Exer. 360: "vomui – sit honos habitus vestris auribus."  Cf. Cic. Fam. 9, 22, 4, noting the obscene meaning of the verb strangulare when used with a woman as object: "Si dicimus 'ille patrem strangulavit,' honorem non praefamur; sin de Aureliâ aliquid aut Lolliâ, honos praefandus est."  ► sit venia verbo \

01 pronounce  proferre (QUINT. 11, 3, 33: "plerisque extremas syllabas non perferentibus dum priorum sono indulgent"; DANTE Vulg. El. 331: "quae quidem littera [z] non sine multâ rigiditate profertur"; VIVES Stud. pueril. 278: "primum soni litterarum diligenter animadvertendi sunt ... observabis quem ad modum periti proferant, et eos imitaberis ... in usum recte proferendi conscriptae sunt a Hieronymo Aleandro tabellae eruditae; cavendum tamen ne sic adsuescas Graecae pronuntiationi ut Latina illo more proferas."  ► sonare (CIC. Brut. 259: "sonabatque contrarium Catulo, subagreste quiddam planeque subrusticum," "he pronounced in a somewhat rustic way," or "he had something of a rural accent"' VIVES Stud. pueril. 258: "infigenda haec sunt et inculcanda, ut [discipulus] recte litteras et syllabas sonet, nec ullum insit in ore vitium."  ► (litteras) appellare (CIC. Brut. 133: "suavitate appellandarum litterarum."  ► pronuntiare (Meyer 215, ad CIC. Brut. 259: "Graeci litteras iucundius pronuntiabant, quorum eloquendi ratio levius sonaret quiddam."  ►► CIC. Brut. 259: "Catulus erat ille quidem minime indoctus, ut a te paulo est ante dictum, sed tamen suavitas vocis et lenis appellatio litterarum bene loquendi famam confecerat.  Cotta, qui se valde dilatandis litteris a similitudine Graecae locutionis abstraxerat sonabatque contrarium Catulo, subagreste quiddam planeque subrusticum, alia quidem quasi inculta et silvestri via ad eandem laudem pervenerat."  CIC. de Orat. 3, 42: " Est autem vitium, quod non nulli de industria consectantur: rustica vox et agrestis quosdam delectat, quo magis antiquitatem, si ita sonet, eorum sermo retinere videatur; ut tuus, Catule, sodalis, L. Cotta, gaudere mihi videtur gravitate linguae sonoque vocis agresti et illud, quod loquitur, priscum visum iri putat, si plane fuerit rusticanum.  Me autem tuus sonus et subtilitas ista delectat."  QUINT. 11, 3, 35: "Dilucida vero erit pronuntiatio primum si verba tota exierint, quorum pars devorari, pars destitui solet, plerisque extremas syllabas non perferentibus dum priorum sono indulgent."

01 pronounce: accent  (mode of pronunciation characteristic of a certain region, class, foreigners, etc.)  ► sonus, i m. (e.g., rusticus, agrestis, peregrînus, meridiânus)  ¶ CIC. de Orat. 4, 32: "Cotta gaudere mihi videtur gravitate linguae sonoque vocis agresti."  QUINT. 11, 3, 10: "qui verborum atque ipsius etiam soni rusticitate, ut L. Cottam dicit Cicero fecisse, imitationem antiquitatis adfectant."  ► vox, vocis f.  ¶ CIC. de Or. 3, 42: "Rustica vox et agrestis quosdam delectat."  |  have an accent (of a certain sort)  ► sonare (with internal accusative)  |  have a rural accent  ► rusticum (v. agreste) sonare  ¶ CIC. Brut. 259: "Sonabatque contrarium Catulo, subagreste quiddam planeque subrusticum."  |  have a foreign accent  ► peregrînum sonare

01 pronunciation  ► litterarum appellatio  ¶ CIC. Brut. 259, of the orator Catulus: "Suavitas vocis et lenis appellatio litterarum bene loquendi famam confecerat."  QUINT. 11, 3, 35: "Laudatur in Catulo suavis appellatio litterarum."  Cf. CIC. Brut. 133: "de sono vocis et suavitate appellandarum litterarum."  ► pronuntiatio, ônis f.  ¶ QUINT. 11, 3, 35: "Dilucida vero erit pronuntiatio." VIVES Stud. pueril. 268: "Nec solum voces [discipulus] aemulabitur, sed pronuntiationem quoque, ne in accentibus peccet."  Meyer 215, ad CIC. Brut. 259: "appellatio: i.e. pronuntiatio."  ►prôlâtio sonorum  ¶ VIVES Stud. pueril. 277.  ► prôlâtio, ônis f.  ¶ CaelAur.  DANTE Vulg. El. 323, 333: "prolationis mollitiem."   ►► loquêlae formâtio  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 38: "Alterum bonae dentium constitutionis usum ... in eo ponimus, quod ab ipsâ recta loquelae formatio atque commoditas dependet."

01 purist, stickler  (in language usage)  recte loquendi exactor (QUINT. 1, 3, 14: "in filio, ut epistulis apparet, recte loquendi asper quoque exactor," of Cicero)  ► puri sermonis exactor (EGGER R.A. 10; cf. SUET. Gramm. 22: "sermonis Latini exactor molestissimus")

01 root (of word)  radix, îcis f. (Gesenius x)

01 schwa  schwa (indecl.) (Gesenius 1, of the Hebrew vowel)

01 silent (of letters)  quiescens, entis

01 simultaneous translation  < versio simultanea (EGGER D.L. 22)

01 synonym  synônymum, i n. (Prisc.; SERV. Verg.; 1798 DESFONTAINES v; 1843 TRAPPEN 10)

01 term  vox, vocis f., vocabulum, i n., terminus, i m. (especially of technical term) (1811 PALLAS xiv)  |  technical term  artis terminus (1811 PALLAS 49)

01 terminology

01 translate  ► vertere  ¶ PLAUT.  CIC.  LIV.  ► convertere  ¶ CIC.)  ► interpretâri  ¶ CIC.  QUINT.  ► transferre  ¶ CIC.  QUINT.  ► tradûcere  ¶ Gell.  |  translate into Spanish ► Hispanicê convertere  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i: "liber ... Hispanice conversus."  |  translate from Greek into Latin  ► de Graeco in Latinum transferre  ¶ HIER. Ep. 112, 20.  |  translate faithfully  ► castâ fide tradûcere  ¶ 1698 Hofmann s.v. Rabelaesius.

01 translate literally, translate word for word  verbum e verbo exprimere (CIC. Ac. 2, 31; EGGER L.D.I. 121: "interpretes sacrorum Bibliorum saepe verbum e verbo exprimebant."  ► verbum pro verbo reddere (CIC. Opt. Gen. 5, 14)  ► ad verbum exprimere (CIC. Fin. 1, 2, 4: "fabellae Latinae ad verbum de Graecis expressae."  ► ad verbum transferre (QUINT. 7, 4, 4)  ► ad verbum vertere (VIVES Stud. pueril. 279)

01 translation (concretely: a translated work or passage)  interpretâtio, ônis f. (AUG. Ep. 82, 35, of Jerome's translation of the Old Testament: "me nolle tuam ex Hebraeo interpretationem in ecclesiis legi"; HIER. Ep. 112, 19: "cur mea prior in libris canonicis interpretatio asteriscos habeat ... et postea aliam translationem absque his signis ediderim"; VIVES Stud. pueril. 279: "conferas Graeca cum interpretationibus Latinis."  ► interpretâmentum, i n. (Gell.)  ► translâtio, ônis, f. (QUINT. 1, 4, 18; HIER. Ep. 112, 19)  ► tradûctio, ônis (*) f. (RABELAIS 944: "collatis eorum [interpretum] traductionibus cum exemplari Graecanico."  ► versio, ônis+ f. ("a turning" in medieval Latin, "translation" since Renaissance)  ¶ NIERMEYER.  HOVEN.  1794 RUIZ xx: "in versione Hispanicâ."

01 vocabulary  ► verborum supellex  ¶ Quint. 8, proem. 28, commending the orator "qui rationem loquendi primum cognoverit, tum lectione multâ et idoneâ copiosam sibi verborum supellectilem compararit."  ► verborum thesaurus  ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 116.  ► vocabulorum copia

02

02    GRAMMAR

02 agree (of grammatical agreement)  congruere (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261: "intelligat ... suppositum [subject] hoc et verbum quomodo debeant congruere")

02 agreement (grammatical)  congruentia, ae f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260: "post haec incipiet discere congruentiam adiectivi et substantivi in numero, genere, et casu")

02 case  casus, ûs m.

02 cases: ablative  (grammatical case)  (casus) ablativus, casus auferendi

02 cases: ablative of accompaniment  ablativus sociativus* (v. comitativus*) (EGGER L.D.I. 92)  |  ablative of means  ablativus instrumentalis (EGGER L.D.I. 92)  |  ablative of quality ablativus qualitatis (EGGER L.D.I. 92)  |  ablative of separation  ablativus separationis (cf. EGGER L.D.I. 92: "ablativus ... qui vere proprieque dicitur (casus separativus)."  |  ablative of time ablativus temporis (EGGER L.D.I. 92)

02 cases: accusative  (grammatical case)  (casus) accusativus, casus accusandi

02 cases: dative  (grammatical case)  (casus) dativus, casus dandi

02 cases: genitive  (grammatical case)  (casus) genetivus, casus gignendi

02 cases: genitive of quality  genetivus qualitatis (EGGER L.D.I. 92)

02 cases: locative  (grammatical case)  casus localis (cf. adverbia localia, Charis. p. 182 P)  ►► "Locativus" (EGGER L.D.I. 92) should mean "involving the act of placing or leasing."

02 cases: nominative (grammatical case)  (casus) nominativus, casus nominandi, (casus) rectus

02 cases: vocative  (grammatical case)  (casus) vocativus, casus vocandi

02 clause  enuntiatum, i n. (EGGER L.D.I. 79 et passim)  ► membrum, i n. (CIC. Or. 62, 211)

02 conditional sentence  (grammatical)  enuntiatum condicionale (EGGER L.D.I. 79)  |  contrary-to-fact conditional sentence  enuntiatum condicionale irreale* (EGGER L.D.I. 91: "enuntiatum condicionale potest esse: indefinitum (alii dicunt reale) ... irreale (condicio proponitur ut non realis)." ("irrealis" is in BARTAL)

02 conjugation  (group of verbs similarly inflected)  coniugatio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261)  |  (act of inflecting a verb)  dêclînâtio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 264)  ► inflexio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 264)

02 construction (grammar: a syntactical construction, a way of arranging words)  constructio, ônis f. (CIC.; DANTE Vulg. El. 341)

02 declension  dêclînâtio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 259: "in quibusdam nominibus primae declinationis."  ► inflexio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 259: "inflexio nominum"; VIVES Stud. pueril.278: "inflexiones nominum et verborum")

02 decline, conjugate  inflectere (VIVES Stud. pueril. 258: "quae significant fieri aliquid, et inflectuntur per modos et tempora, haec dicuntur verba"; VIVES Stud. pueril. 259: "nomina inflectere";VIVES Stud. pueril. 261: "inflectet verba per quattuor coniugationes."  ► dêclînare (VIVES Stud. pueril. 258: "quae declinantur per casûs, et significant aliquid fieri in tempore, dicuntur participia")

02 deverbal noun  nômen verbâle (VIVES Stud. pueril. 264)

02 diminutive  vox deminutiva (EGGER R.A. 87)  ► (nomen) deminutivum

02 end in  (of grammatical terminations)  exire, desinere

02 figure of speech  figûra, ae (CIC.; QUINT.)  ► schêma, atis n. (QUINT.)

02 figure of speech sarcasm ?dictērium (Muench, 1941), ?dīcācitās -ātis

02 form  (grammatical form of a word)  figûra, ae (QUINT.)

02 gender (grammatical)  genus, eris n.

02 gender: feminine  fêminîni generis, fêminînus, a, um

02 gender: masculine  masculîni generis, masculînus, a, um (QUINT. 1, 6, 3: "ut si quaeratur funis masculinum sit an femininum")

02 gender: neuter  neutri generis, neuter, tra, trum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 259: "nomina neutra habent accusativum et vocativum similes nominativo")

02 grammar  (alicuius linguae) elementa (v. rudimenta) (cf. titles of grammars published in Latin, e.g., Elementa linguae ArabicaeElementa Syriaca)  ► grammatica, ae (or ê, ês) f. (the term applies to literary as well as language studies)  ► prima elementa grammaticae (1540 VIVES Exer. 335: "alii [doctores] prima elementa artis grammaticae laboriose atque aerumnose pueris toto die ingeminant; alii penitiora tradunt artis")

02 indeclinable  (grammatical)  indeclinabilis, e (Diom.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 268)  ► inflexibilis, e (VIVES Stud. pueril. 268)

02 indirect object  (grammatical)  complêmentum indirectum (EGGER L.D.I. 10)

02 irregular  (grammatical)  anômalus, a, um (MART. Cap.; EGGER L.D.I. 81: "verba temporalia anomala, quae videlicet sunt abnormia")

02 letter names: u  u vocalis (VIVES Stud. pueril. 257)

02 letter names: v  u consonans (VIVES Stud. pueril. 257)

02 monosyllabic  adj.  monosyllabus, a, um (MART. Cap.)

02 monosyllable  subst.  mononsyllabon, i n. (QUINT.; DANTE Vulg. El. 345: "quaedam monosyllabal, ut sì, no, me")

02 parts of speech  orationis partes (VIVES Stud. pueril. 258; EGGER L.D.I. 104)

02 parts of speech:  verb  verbum (temporale)

02 parts of speech: adjective  nômen adiectîvum, adiectîvum, i n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)  ► epitheton, i n. (QUINT.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 259)

02 parts of speech: adverb  adverbium, i n.

02 parts of speech: conjunction  coniunctio, ônis f.

02 parts of speech: interjection  interiectio, ônis f.

02 parts of speech: noun  nômen substantîvum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 259)  ► substantîvum, i n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 parts of speech: noun: common noun  nômen appellatîvum

02 parts of speech: noun: proper noun  nômen proprium

02 parts of speech: participle  participium, i n.

02 parts of speech: preposition  praepositio, onis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 258)

02 parts of speech: pronoun  prônômen, inis n.

02 plural   subst.  (the plural)  numerus plûrâlis (QUINT. 1, 5, 42)  ► plûrâlis, is m. (Quint 9, 3, 8; VIVES Stud. pueril. 259: "in plurali hi tres casûs finiuntur in a."  ► numerus plûrâtîvus (Gell.) ► plûratîvum, i n. (Gell.)  |  in the plural  plûrâliter (SEN. Q. N. 2, 56, 1: "tonitrua nos pluraliter dicimus."  ► plûrâtîvê (1540 VIVES Exer. 395: "femur, et ut olim loquebantur, femen; nunc malunt plurative femina")

02 proposition, phrase  enuntiatum, i n. (EGGER L.D.I. 5)  ► enuntiatio, onis f.

02 purpose clause  enuntiatum finale (EGGER L.D.I. 76)

02 result clause  (grammatical)  enuntiatum consecutivum (EGGER L.D.I. 79)

02 rules of grammar  formulae grammaticae (VIVES Stud. pueril. 276)  ► normae grammaticae (VIVES Stud. pueril. 276)  ► praecepta grammatica (VIVES Stud. pueril. 276)

02 semiconsonant  semiconsonans, ntis* f. (EGGER R.A. 47)

02 sentence  periodus, i f. (CIC.; QUINT.)

02 sentence: clause  (part of sentence)  membrum, i n. (CIC.)  |  (short section or provision of statute, treaty, etc.)  clausula, ae f. (DIG.; PERUGINI, Concordata 40)

02 sequence of tenses  (grammatical)  consecutio temporum (EGGER L.D.I. 85)

02 singular (the singular, or a word in the singular)  (numerus) singulâris (cf. VIVES Stud. pueril. 260: "hinc explicandae declinationes quinque, quomodo prima cognoscatur ex genitivo singulari vel plurali."  |  a word in the singular  (nômen) singulâre (QUINT. 1, 5, 16: "quod pluralia singulariter et singularia pluraliter efferuntur")

02 subject  (topic)  argumentum, i n., thema, atis n.;  (grammatical)  subiectum, i* n. (EGGER L.D.I. 10)  ► suppositum, i* n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261)

02 subject: object  (grammatical)  obiectum, i* n. (EGGER L.D.I. 10)  ► complêmentum directum (EGGER L.D.I. 10)

02 subordinate clause  enuntiatum secundarium (EGGER L.D.I. 76)

02 syntax  structûra verbôrum (CIC. Brut. 8, 33; EGGER L.D.I. 120)  ► syntaxis, is f. (Prisc. 17, 1, 1; VIVES Stud. pueril. 261; EGGER L.D.I. 120)  ► constructio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril.261: "tum veniendum ad eam quae Graecis dicitur syntaxis, Latinis constructio")

02 verb tense: future (verb tense)  (tempus) futurum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: future perfect  (verb tense)  futurum exactum (EGGER L.D.I. 63)  ► futurum perfectum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: imperfect (verb tense)  (tempus) imperfectum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: past (verb tense)  (tempus) praeteritum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260: "indicativus ... in quo quinque sunt tempora: praesens, tria praeterita, et futurum")

02 verb tense: past perfect (verb tense)  praeteritum plus quam perfectum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: perfect (verb tense)  (praeteritum) perfectum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: perfect subjunctive  (verb tense)  (tempus) perfectum (modi) coniunctivi (EGGER L.D.I. 66)  ► futurum subiunctivi (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: present (verb tense)  (tempus) praesens (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb: deponent verb  verbum dêpônens (VIVES Stud. pueril. 263)

02 verb: gerund  gerundium, i n. (Prisc.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 267)

02 verb: gerundive  gerundium adiectîvum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 267)

02 verb: impersonal verb  verbum impersonâle (Charis.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 266)

02 verb: mood  modus, i m. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260: "quinque sunt modi in verbo: indicativus ... imperativus ... optativus ... subiunctivus ... infinitivus")

02 verb: mood: imperative  (modus) imperativus (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb: mood: indicative  (modus) indicativus (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb: mood: infinitivus  (modus) infinitivus (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261)

02 verb: mood: optativus  (modus) optativus (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb: mood: subjuinctive  (modus) subiunctivus (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261)  ► modus coniunctivus 

02 verb: supine  supînum, i n. (Prisc.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 261)

02 verb: voice  (grammatical)  vox, vocis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 266) ►► modus, i m. (QUINT.; EGGER L.D.I. 53: "modus passivus temporis praesentis")

02 verb: voice: active voice  (grammatical)  ►► faciendi modus (QUINT. 9, 3, 7)

02 verb: voice: passive voice  (grammatical)  vox passîva (VIVES Stud. pueril. 266) ►► patiendi modus (QUINT. 1, 6, 26; 9, 3, 7)

027

027    PHONETICS

027 consonant  (littera) consonans (QUINT.)

027 consonant: semivowel  littera (v. consonans) semivocalis (VIVES Stud. pueril. 257)

027 consonant: vowel  (littera) vocalis (CIC.; QUINT.)

027 diphthong  diphthongus, i f. (MART. Cap.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 257)

027 manner: affricate (English ch, j)

027 manner: fricative, spirant (f, s, v, z)

027 manner: fricative: sibilant (s, z)

027 manner: liquid (l, r)  ► consonans liquida  ¶ VIVES Stud. pueril. 257.  ► liquida, ae+ f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 345: "sine duarum liquidarum geminatione vel positione immediate post mutam."

027 manner: nasal (m, n)

027 manner: plosive, oral stop (p, t, k, b, d, g)  ► consonans muta  ¶ VIVES Stud. pueril. 257)  ► muta, ae+ f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 345.

027 place: alveolar (English t, d, n)  ►

027 place: bilabial (m, b, p)  ►

027 place: dental (Spanish t, d, n)  ► consonans dentâlis  ► littera dentâlis  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 39: "Singulari aeris ad dentes allisioni ipsae quaedam litterae ... peculiariter debentur, ideoque etiam dentalium nomine insigniuntur."  Ibid.: "dentalium praeprimis litterarum elocutionem."  For adj. dentalis, see Souter citing Plin. Med.

027 place: glottal  ►

027 place: labial (m, b, p, f, v)  ►

027 place: labiodental (f, v)  ►

027 place: palatal (Italian gn, gl)  ►

027 place: velar (g, k)  ►

027 silent letter, mute  littera quiescens

027 sound (phonetic), phoneme  sonus, i m.

027 trilled r, trill one's r's

027 voiced consonant

027 voiceless consonant 

028

028    ALAPHABET

028 /alphabet  abecedârium, i n. (1540 VIVES Exer. 320)  ► alphabêtum, i n. (TERT.; HIER.)  ► litterae, arum f. pl.

028 /alphabetical order  litterarum ordo (PLIN. 37, 138: "gemmas reliquas per litterarum ordinem explicabimus."  ► ordo abecedarius (Maiansius 340)

028 /alphabetical order: in alphabetical order, alphabetical (of list, dictionary, etc.)  ad litterarum ordinem digestus (Gesenius x)  ► ordine abecedario distinctus (Maiansius 340)

028 /writing, art of writing  litterae, arum f. pl. (1652 TURS. 13: "Cadmus ... litteras e Phoenicia deportavit in Graeciam")

028 block letter, block capital  litttera quadrata (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

028 capital letter  ► littera maior  ¶ 1810 BROWN vi: " litterâ unicâ Romanâ maiore."  ► littera grandis  ¶ EGGER R.A. 123.

028 capital letter: small letter  ¶ littera minor  ¶ 1810 BROWN viii.

028 check mark  ►► Fr. marque de contrôle

028 hieroglyphic  nota hieroglyphica (Amm.)  ► littera hieroglyphica (Macr.)  ► hieroglypha, ae* f. (Kopp 2: "quae hieroglyphis involuta significavit ... prisca Aegyptus, ea tot saeculorum decursu vel nunc quidem manent, sed vim et potestatem eorum ne ullo quidem modo vel doctissimi adhuc perspicere valuerunt."  ►► Luc. Herm. 44 (vide Lidell-Scott s.v.  χαρακτηρ ) notas hieroglyphicas χαρακτηρας  vocat, distinguit  γραμματα .

028 ideogram, pictogram  ideographêma, atis* f., nota (v. littera) ideographica* (cf. litterae hieroglyphicae, Macr. S. 1, 21, 12; notae hieroglyphicae, Amm. 17, 4, 8)  ► vocis (v. notionis) pictûra (v. figûra)  ►► ideogramma, atis* n. (EGGER S.L. 87: "tria milia idegrammatum, id est signorum seu figurarum, quibus Sineses in scribendo utuntur, mente comprehendit")

028 names of letters: h  aspiratio, ônis f., hacca 

028 names of letters: j  i consonans

028 names of letters: v  u consonans (DANTE Vulg. El. 332)

028 spelling  orthographia, ae f. (norms of correct spelling) (SUET. AUG. 88: "orthographia, id est formula ratioque scribendi a grammaticis instituta"; QUINT. 1, 4, 17)  |  I'm terrible at spelling orthographiam haudquaquam calleo

028 start with (a letter)  cf. 1698 Hofmann iv: "in vocabulis quorum initium daleth litterâ ... efficitur"

03

03    PUNCTUATION

03 accent  (stress or pitch of a syllable)  < accentus, ûs m.  |  (diacritical mark, diacritic)  < accentûs signum (strictly, of mark indicating syllable stress or pitch)  ► apex, icis m. ¶QUINT. 1, 7, 2 et passim, of long mark over vowel.  ¶ Vulg. Matt. 5, 18: "Iota unum aut unus apex non praeteribit a lege."  ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v, of a book in which the Greek accents were negligently printed: "Si tamen Graeca quae passim occurrunt respicias, quot apices, tot fere menda reperias."  ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 8.  ► apiculus, i* m. ¶ LATHAM citing 16-c. source.  ¶ RABELAIS945: "(n medicorum libris ... apiculus inversus aut praepostere scriptus multa hominum milia haud raro neci dedit." 

03 accent: accute accent  accentus acûtus (DANTE Vulg. El. 345)  |  (diacritical mark)  accentûs acûti signum

03 accent: cedilla

03 accent: circumflex accent  accentus circumflexus (DANTE Vulg. El. 345)  |  (diacritical mark)  accentûs circumflexi signum

03 accent: grave accent  accentus gravis;  (diacritical mark)  accentûs gravis signum

03 accent: macron

03 accent: macron: breve

03 accent: tilde

03 accent: umlaut, diaeresis

03 breathing: rough breathing mark  spiritûs asperi signum

03 breathing: smooth breathing mark  spiritûs lenis signum

03 emoticon (series of characters – such as :) – representing facial expression) 

03 emoticon: smiley (symbol representing smiling face)  ôris renidentis imaguncula

03 line: dotted line, broken line, sign on the dotted line

03 logograms: "at" sign (@)

03 logograms: ampersand (&)

03 logograms: equal sign (=)

03 logograms: plus sign (+)

03 logograms: plus: minus sign (-)

03 logograms: pound sign, number sign (#)

03 marks: apostrophe

03 marks: asterisk  ► asteriscus, i m.  ¶ SUET. frag. p. 139 (ed. Reifferscheid).  HIER. Ep. 112, 19.  ISID. Orig. 1, 20, 1.  Ducange, defining as "nota instar stellulae quâ utuntur librarii."  ►stellula, ae f. /

03 marks: colon

03 marks: colon: semicolon

03 marks: comma  ►► Virgula est vox ambigua; vide HIER. Ep. 112, 19: "ubicumque virgulae, hoc est obeli sunt."

03 marks: dagger, obelus, obelisk  ► obelus, i m.  ¶ HIER. Ep. 112, 19: "Ubicumque virgulae, hoc est obeli sunt."  Isid.  1810 BROWN viii: "signo obeli (†) notavi."

03 marks: ellipsis points

03 marks: exclamation point  signum exclamationis (Pharm. Austr. xxii)

03 marks: hyphen

03 marks: hyphen: dash

03 marks: obelus (indicating suspect passage in text)  obelus, i m. (HIER. Ep. 112, 19; ISID. Orig. 1, 20, 1)

03 marks: period (US), full stop (Br.)  punctum, i n.

03 marks: question mark

03 marks: quotation marks

03 marks: slash /

03 marks: slash: backslash \

03 marks: slash: vertical bar

03 parentheses ( )  ► lunulae, arum f. pl.  ¶ Erasmus.  ► unci, orum m. pl.  ¶ 1810 BROWN vi: "litterâ ... uncis inclusâ."

03 parentheses: brackets [ ]

03 parentheses: brackets { }

03 parentheses: brackets ►

03 puncutation  interpunctiones verborum (CIC. Mur. 25)

03 type: bold, boldface

03 type: italics  obliqui typi m. pl. (Pharm. Austr. xxii)

03 type: underline, underlining

04

04    WRITING

04 abbreviate  (vocabulum) compendiose perhibere (EGGER R.A. 147: "nomina scriptorum veterum Latinorum compendiose perhibentur secundum morem qui in libris (et lexicis) eruditorum obtinet")

04 abbreviation  ► compendiariae litterae  ¶ EGGER D.L. 16.  EGGER S.L. 31.  ► scribendi compendium ¶ EGGER R.A. 147.  ► sigla, orum n. pl. (properly, abbrevations consisting of a single letter or other sign)  ¶ Cod. Just. 1, 17, 2, 22: "omnia enim ... per consequentias litterarum volumus, non per sigla manifestari," "to be written out in full, not abbreviated."  1810 BROWN v, of one-letter abbreviations.

04 code, coded writing  ► cifrae, arum+ f. pl.  ¶ LATHAM s.v. cifra, noting this meaning under spelling zifera).  RABIKAUSKAS 151, quoted below.  ► ciphrae, arum+ f. pl.  ¶ DUCANGEs.v. cifrae, sub-entry ciphrae: "Characteres occulti, Gallis chifres, quibus arcana, et quae ab aliis ignorari interest, solent perscribi ac significari. Illarum varias species, ciphras simplices, non significantibus characteribus mixtas, duplices litteras uno charactere complexas, ciphras rotae, ciphras clavis, ciphras verborum, enumerat illustris Verulamius."  HOVEN, defining as "langage chiffré, codé"; citing Vives.  F. BACON, quoted by Ducange.  ► ziffrae, arum+ f. pl.  ¶ DUCANGE, quoting a statute: "Statuerunt et ordinaverunt quod domini ius dicentes in decretationibus ... non utantur ziffris seu aliis litteris brevibus."  ► characteres occulti (m. pl.)  ¶ DUCANGE s.v. cifrae in definition, quoted above.  ► cryptographia, ae* f.  ¶ KOPP 12: "Cavendum est ne eorum decipiamur opinione qui notas Tironianas genus esse cryptographiae docent."  RABIKAUSKAS 150, quoted below.   ► scriptura occulta  ¶ RABIKAUSKAS 150, quoted below.    ►► RABIKAUSKAS 150-151: "De usu cryptographiae in curiâ pontificiâ notitiae copiosiores tantum a saeculo XIV habentur.  In cancellariâ Ioannis XXII usus scripturae occultae sat extensus erat. Signa numeris sic dictis arabicis expressa non adhibebantur; [p. 151] potius ad permutationem diversimodam ipsarum litterararum alphabeti recurrebatur. Postea ... evolutio systematum 'cifrae' valde increbruit, quae etiam in curiâ pontificiâ large applicabantur. Iam saeculo XV cura litterarum 'cifratarum' uni e secratariis papae commissa est, qui a saeculo XVI cifaristaappellabatur ... Opus principale de 'cifris,' in quo plurimae 'claves' cifrarum in curia pontificia saeculo XVI usitataturm evulgatae habentur, est A. Meister, Die Geheimschrift ... Auctor monet investigatores de erroribus qui in transcriptione e minutâ in formam originalem cifratam et postea in eiusdem decifratione occurrere possunt."

04 code: write in code  ► per notas scribere  ¶ SUET. CAES. 56: "Si qua occultius perferenda essent, per notas scripsit."  ► notis sêcrêtioribus scrîbere  ¶ LLI s.v. ziffrare in definition.  ►zifrare  ¶ LLI: "ZIFFRARE, ZIFRARE ... 1. notis secretioribus scribere, compendiarie scribere ... 2. notis arithmeticis scribere."

04 coded document  scriptum furtivum (EGGER S.L. 60)  ► scriptum cryptographicum*, scriptum cifratum* (for the adjective cifratus, see Rabikauskas 151)  ►► cryptogramma, atis* n. (EGGER S.L. 60)

04 cross out (something written), strike through  lituram inducere (1540 VIVES Exer. 322)

04 cuneiform writing, cuneiform characters  litterae cuneatae (Kopp 2)  ► litterae Persepolitânae (Kopp 2: "neque felicius cesserunt eorum studia qui in explicandis litteris Persepolitanis (cuneatas vocant) operam collocarunt."  ► litterae cuneiformes*  ►► The site of ancient Persepolis was perhaps the most important source of cuneiform inscriptions.

04 delete  expungere (1698 Hofmann v: "expunxi prorsus falsa," in revising a dictionary)

04 dictate  dictare

04 dictation: take dictation  excipere (esp. in shorthand) (SUET. Tit. 3: "notis quoque excipere velocissime solitum."  |  one who takes dictation  exceptor, ôris m. (DIG.; 1540 VIVES Exer.340: "huc adducito puerum exceptorem, nam lubet aliquid dictare")

04 draft, rough draft  adumbratio, onis f., litûrârii, orum m. pl. (Aus.)  ► adumbratum exemplum (EGGER S.L. 67)

04 draft: version  forma, ae f. (1698 Hofmann v: "hanc tertiam lexici sui formam excogitaverit."  ► redactio, ônis f.

04 form (document with blanks to fill in)  formula, ae f. (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► schida formularia*;  (grammatical form of word)  figura, ae f. (VARR.; QUINT.)

04 handwriting  manus, ûs f. (CIC.)  ► chîrographum, i n. (CIC. Phil. 2, 8: "quid opponas tandem, si negem me umquam ad te istas litteras misisse quo me teste convincas? an chirographo?"; 1652TURS. 199, of a Byzantine emperor: "chirographo suo astrologorum damnavit artem."  |  to have messy handwriting  perturbate exarare litteras (1540 VIVES Exer. 317)

04 handwriting: autograph  nômen autographum, autographa nôminis scriptio (EGGER S.L. 56; LRL)

04 illiterate  analphabetus, a, um* (Kopp 2)  |  be illiterate  ►► In CIC. Brut. 259, "litteras nescire" valet potius "have no literary culture."

04 key (of typewriter, computer)  ► malleolus, i m.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 88.  The term was extended in antiquity to objects resembling in form a hammerhead or mallet-head, including sorts of plant slips and military missiles.

04 keyboard (of typewriter, computer)  ► abacus, i m.

04 label  pittacium, i n.

04 notebook  ► adversaria, orum n. pl.  ¶ CIC.  EGGER L.D.I. 104.  ► pugillâres, ium m. pl. (small notebook)  ► liber vacuus  ¶ VIVES Stud. pueril. 268: "Habeat [discipulus] librum vacuum maiusculum, in quem manu suâ coniiciat tum verba ... tum loquendi formulas."  ► liber chartae vacuae  ¶ VIVES Stud. pueril. 272.  ► liber exceptorius  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 340.  ►quaternio, ônis+ m. (originally of four folded sheets)  ¶ Ducange: "QUATERNIO, QUATERNUS, QUATERNUNCULUS, Chartae invicem compactae, nostris cahier ... Rabanaus Epist. ad Hincmarum: 'Prudentius Trecassinae civitatis episcopus plura testimonia praeteritorum patrum in quaternionibus suis collegit.'"  ► quaternus, i+ m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 64: "Similiter autem stabularii et hospitum receptores scribunt in suis quaternis nomina omnium viatorum quos in suis hospitiis recipiunt."

04 notes  ► adversâria, orum n. pl.  ¶ CIC.  1794 RUIZ v: "ex eiusdem Itinere a praeceptore Linnaeo ex adversariis excerpto, et Holmiae evulgato."  1794 RUIZ x: "quaecumque de itineribus ... in adversariis diligenter adnotavimus."  ► schedae, arum f. pl.  ¶ RABELAIS 944: "adnotatiunculas itaque illas ... cum nuper inter schedas meas vidisset."  1811 PALLAS vi.

04 outline  lineamenta, orum n. pl. (Rabikauskas, title page: "praelectionum lineamenta")

04 poster  libellus parieti affixus, libellus parietarius (v. parietalis)  ► libellus (EGGER R.A. 80)

04 register, catalogue  regesta, orum n. pl. (PRUD.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 340)

04 revise, rewrite  ► recognoscere  ¶ 1698 Hofmann vi: "operis recognoscendi provincia," of revision of a dictionary.  ► retractare  ¶ 1698 Hofmann vii.  ► incûdi reddere  ¶ Hor. A.P. 440-441: "Delere iubebat  ¶ et male tornatos incudi reddere versûs."  ► ad incûdem revocare  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xxi: "quae [scil. volumina] ad incudem revocantes ex vegetabilium viventium sedulâ inspectione reformavimus."

04 secretary, one who writes for another, one who takes dictation  \\ notârius, i m. (esp. of shorthand-writer)  \ Plin. Ep.  \ Quint.  \ Amm.

04 secretary: stenographer, one who writes in shorthand  \\ tachygraphus, i* m. \ Kopp 15 et passim.

04 sign  vb.  subscribere (alicui rei)  ► subnotare (aliquid)  ►► rationibus subscribere, testamento subscribere, DIG. 40, 7, 40; nomina subnotare, SUET. Calig. 41; subnotare tabulas (EGGER D.L. 46)  |  pacto subscribere (EGGER S.L. 68)

04 slip of the pen  lapsus calami (cf. Septuagint, "Praef.": "librarii lapsus," copyist's mistake)  ► sphalma, atis* n.

04 spacing  versuum intercapêdo (1540 VIVES Exer. 322: "posthac relinquite maiorem intercapedinem versuum, ut sit ubi ego possim corrigere vestra errata."  ► versuum interstitium

04 spacing: double-space  vb.  interstitium duplex interponere (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 320: "duc versûs densiores: quid necesse habes tam magna interstitia relinquere?."  |  double-spaced interstitio duplice interposito

04 spacing: single-space  vb.  interstitium simplex interponere;  single-spaced  interstitio simplice interposito

04 stenography, shorthand  \\ tachygrahia, ae* f.  \ Kopp 3 et passim.

04 two-sided (of document or copy with writing on both sides)  opisthographus, a, um (PLIN. Ep. 3, 5, 17: "[avunculus meus] commentarios centum sexaginta mihi reliquit, opisthographos quidem et minutissime scriptos")

04 two-sided copy  exemplar opisthographum

04 typographical error, typo  < typographiae vitium ¶ 1698 HOFMANN vii.  ► typographiae mendum ¶ 1798 DESFONTAINES v: "in castigandis typographiae mendis."  ► errâtum, i n. ¶ 1672 FRISIUS vi, quoted below.  ► sphalma, atis* n. ¶ 1811 PALLAS 569.  << Typos and similar errors are said to irrêpere – "creep into" a book:  ¶ 1672 FRISIUS vi, in publisher's preface: "Nulli tamen dubitamus quin leviora sint, si qua forte invitis nobis irrepserunt errata, quam ut aequus animus illis offendatur."

05

05    OFFICE

05 archives, official records  regesta, orum n. pl. (DUCANGE s.v. aresta in article)

05 archives, records office  ► archîvum, i n.  ► tabulârium, i n. (especially of public records office)  ¶ 1794 RUIZ vii, of a monastery's archies.  KOPP 2: "Cum peregrinas regiones perlustrarem, in tabulariorum custodes incidi quibus ne legere quidem per imperitiam liceret chartas curis ipsorum commissas."

05 archivist, keeper or records  \\ tabulârius, i m.  \ Sen.  \ Dig.

05 bulletin board (US), noticeboard (Br.)  nuntiorum tabula  ►► EL: tableau d'affichage; bacheca; schwartzes Brett; Du. prikbord

05 cardboard  charta densata (EGGER S.L. 69)

05 cardboard: corrugated

05 copy  subst.  exemplum, i n., exemplar, âris n., apographon, i n. (a single copy or transcript, made from an original) (CIC. in Greek; PLIN.)  |  vb.  describere (RABELAIS 946: manu describere)  |  have 2000 copies printed  (librum) in exemplaria bis mille excudendum dare (RABELAIS 946)

05 copy: photocopier  machina phototypica*

05 copy: photocopy  subst.  exemplum phototypicum*;  vb.  phototypice* describere  ►► The expression phototypice exprimere was used as early as 1889 of photostatic copies, and has been transferred in more recent scholarly Latin to the process of photocopying.  WC title: Novum Testamentum e codice Vaticano 1209 nativi textûs Graeci primo omnium phototypice repraesentatum auspice Leone XIII. Pont. Max. (Rome: Biblioteca Vaticana, 1889) (part of the series Codices e Vaticanis selecti phototypice expressi iussu Leonis PP. XIII.).

05 fax  ? exemplar teletypicum*  ►► LRL: isographia e longinquo

05 fax machine  ? machina teletypica*

05 fax: teletype machine, teleprinter  instrumentum têletypicum (EGGER D.L. 33)

05 file cabinet   scrinium ... ►► In scriniis conduntur chartae, epistolae.  HELFER: actorum armarium.  Alb.: repositorium.

05 file, file folder  ►► Helf: integumentum astrictorium (s.v. Aktenordner)  ► loculamentum (s.v. Ordner)  ► actorum coperculum (s.v. Aktendeckel).  LRL: chartarum (v. schedularum v. scidularum) fasciculus.  Alb.: collectorium.

05 office  (place where business is transacted, office building, white-collar work-place)  tractatorium, i n. (SID.)  ► statio, onis f. (COD. TH.; Cod. Just.)  ► quaestûs cottidiani locus (CIC. Cato 4, 17)  ► taberna, ae f., sedes, is f. (with appropriate genitive)  ► officiorum sedes (EGGER D.L. 21, 29)  |  (separate room or space for one or a few within larger work-place)  scriptorium, i+ n., musê(ol)um, i* n. (properly a study, thus used for office of professor or scholar)  ► cella, ae f., ? officiorum sedes (EGGER D.L. 22)  ► ? officii sedes (EGGERS.L. 29: "generalis praectus exercitûs ... dum Matriti in officii sui sedem vehitur, est ex insidiis necatus"; EGGER S.L. 82: "cum ... ex aedibus suis ad officii sedem se conferret")

05 paper  ► charta, ae f.  ¶ In antiquity of papyrus; applied to paper since ML.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 384, of Chinese paper money: "De isto cortice facit fieri chartas sicut de bambace."  ►papŷrus, i (+) m./f.  ¶ In antiquity of papyrus; applied to paper since ML.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 21: "folia de papyro"; et passim.  ► charta bombŷcina  ¶ Ducange s.v. bombax: "Graeci χυλοχάρτιον  vocant chartam bombycinam."  Most European paper was made of cotton rags until the 19th c.

05 paper mill, paper factory  officîna chartâria (PLIN. 18, 89)

05 paper: a sheet of paper, a piece of paper  charta, ae f., scheda, ae f. (CIC.; QUINT.)  ► folium, i n., chartae folium (1540 VIVES Exer. 320: "mutua mihi dimidium chartae folium."  ► ? plagula, ae f. (PLIN. 13, 77: "siccantur sole [papypri] plagulae atque inter se iunguntur")

05 paper: a slip of paper  schedula, ae f. (HIER.)

05 paper: blank paper  charta pûra (MART. )  ► charta vacua (VIVES Stud. pueril. 266)

05 paper: brown wrapping paper, packing paper  charta emporêtica (1540 VIVES Exer. 320)

05 paper: letter-head

05 paper: papyrus  papyrus, i m. and f. (EGGER R.A. 138: "in museo Aegyptio ... vide sis ... papyros."  ►► Non invenio papyri numero plurali (ut apud EGGER) pro monumentis in charta papyracea conscriptis.

05 paper: parchment  membrâna, ae f. (HOR.; PLIN.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 340: "liber ... tectus membranâ ruditer."  ► folium membrânâceum (EGGER R.A. 142)  ► pergamêna, ae f. (HIER.;ISID.)  |  parchment manuscript  liber membrânâceus (1540 VIVES Exer. 336)  ► codex membrânâceus

05 paper: side (of sheet of paper)  facies, êi f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 318: "Latini scribebant in membrana ... unâ tantum facie"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 320: "scribe in utraque facie")

05 paper: stationery  charta epistolaris (1540 VIVES Exer. 319)

05 pen  calamus (scriptorius)  ►► calamus stilographicus (EGGER L.D.I. 104)

05 pen: a piece of chalk  crêta, ae f., lapillus crêtâceus (LRL)

05 pen: ball-point pen  calamus praepilâtus  ►► graphium sphaeralis (EGGER S.L. 105)

05 pen: crayon  stilus cereus

05 pen: marker, magic marker

05 pen: marker: felt-tip pen  calamus coactilicius* (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 387: "calcei coactilicii," of felt shoes)

05 pen: marker: highlighter  ►► EL: evidenziatore; Leuchtstiff, Textmarker

05 pen: pencil  ► plumbum, i n.  ¶ Eugenius Oder, ed., Mulomedicina Chironis (Leipzig: Teubner, 1901), xix-xx, of a manuscript that had been marked in pencil by another scholar: "Numeros capitum Vegetianorum, quae respondent particulis singulis Mulomedicinae, in sinistro margine duarum columnarum, ut solet, plumbo ascripsit Guilelmus Meyer."      ►► lapis scriptorius (EGGERL.D.I. 104)

05 pen: pencil-sharpener  côticula, ae f.

05 pen: quill (for writing)  penna, ae f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 316; 1540 VIVES Exer. 318: "anserinis pennis scribimus")

05 pencase  ► thêca calamâria  ¶ Suet.  Cf. Mart. 14, 19: "theca libraria."  ► calamârium, i+ n.  ¶ Ducange, definining as "vas in quo asservantur encausta, vel atramenta, atque adeo ipsi quibus scribimus calami, unde nomen."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 441: "Et habent multum de ligno unde fiunt calamaria, id est de bonusso, quod in latino dicitur ebenus."

05 pen-stroke  calami ductus (Kopp 12: "paucissimis calami ductibus ut scriptio absolveretur sine ulla dubitatione primus harum notarum [sc. Tironianarum] finis fuit")

05 stationer's (shop)  chartopôlium, i* n. (cf. chartopôla, Schol. JUV. 4, 27)

05 tack  cf. sûbula, clâvulus, punctorium

05 typewriter  machina scriptoria  (cf. EGGER S.L. 88: machinula scriptoria)

05 whole-puncher  punctorium chartârum (v. chartârium)

06

06    MAIL

06 \\ [from Craig Caldwell] Under the Roman Republic, when provincial administration was tantamount to the private business of the nobles who served as governors, there were private networks of messengers called tabellarii.  Augustus introduced an empire-wide system modeled on those of the Hellenistic kings; this first imperial postal system used long-distance (not relay) messengers called iuvenes .  Our evidence for this early imperial post is thin, but from evidence from the later Empire, we can deduce that the cursus publicus evolved into one of the largest -- perhaps the largest -- administrative enterprise of the Roman Empire.  It was both comprehensive in its scope and the impetus for some of the most despised forms of taxation, including the vehiculatio (requisitioning/compulsory sale of animals and provisions for the post).  The system was based on mansiones (posting stations; smaller ones were called mutationes) staffed by state personnel who ran inns, tended the animals, and ensured that messages made it across the Empire.  In the third century, the emperor Septimius Severus was probably responsible for the creation of a slow post (cursus clabularis) of ox-carts to complement the cursus velox, as it was now called.  This slower network could convey supplies across the Empire, especially as taxes were increasingly collected in kind rather than in coin.  Messages could travel over the relays of stations at average speeds of 50 miles/day -- a rapid pace for reliable communications in the ancient world.  Particularly important messages even seem to have traveled 150 miles/day on certain occasions in Roman history.

06 address  inscriptio cursualis (EGGER S.L. 75; EGGER L.D.I. 102)

06 box  (one of set of compartments for receving mail)  loculus, i m., loculamentum, i n.;  set of compartments or boxes  columbarium, i n.

06 courier, messenger  cursor, ôris m. (NEP.; PLIN.; SUET.; 1652 TURS. 437)  ► verêdârius, i m. (Vulg.; HIER.)

06 deliver (a letter)  (epistulam) perferre (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

06 envelope  involûcrum, i n. (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

06 forward (mail, a letter or message)  perferre (SEN. Ep. 3, 1: "epistulas ad me perferendas tradidisti ... amico tuo," "you gave your friend letters to forward to me")

06 mail (a letter), post (a letter)  vb.  (epistulam) mittere (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► (epistulam) cursui publico tradere (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  |  how much does it cost to mail a post card?  quanti stat missio chartulae cursualis? (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

06 mail box  cursûs publici capsula (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► arca (v. capsa) cursualis

06 mail, post  subst.  cursus publicus (Cod. Just. 12, 50; EGGER L.D.I. 102)  |  adj.  curusalis, e

06 mailman, mail carrier, postman, postal deliverer  ► tabellarius, i m.  ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 102.  ► verêdârius, i m.  ¶ SID.  Vulg.  ERASMUS Coll. 160.

06 mailman: courier  ► cursor, ôris m.  ¶ Nep. Milit. 4, 3: "Cursorem eius generis qui hemerodromoe vocantur Lacedaemonem miserunt."  Suet. Ner. 49, of the courier the senate sent to read Nero his death sentence.  Mart. 3, 100: "Cursorem sextâ tibi, Rufe, remisimus horâ,  ¶ carmina quem madidum nostra tulisse reor."

06 post office  cursûs publici diribitorium (EGGER S.L. 40; EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► diribitorium cursuale

06 post, mail  subst.  cursus publicus (EGGER S.L. 31)

06 postcard  chartula cursualis (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

06 stamp (postage)  pittacium cursuale (EGGER L.D.I. 102), pittacium vehiculāre  to stamp (v.) epistulam pittaciō vehiculārī mūnīre (Bacci, OIE 329)

07

07    BOOKS

07 bind: bookbinder  bibliopegus, i m., libri (v. librorum) compactor  ►► librarius glutinator (1540 VIVES Exer. 341)

07 bind: cloth-bound  panno tectus

07 bind: hard-bound, hardcover  tegumento rigido (abl.)

07 bind: leather-bound  corio tectus (1540 VIVES Exer. 340: "liber est expolitus, tectus corio")

07 bookstore  bibliopôlium, i* n. (HOVEN)  ► taberna librâria (CIC. Phil. 2, 9, 21)  ► librâria, ae f. (Gell.)

07 bookstore: bookseller  bibliopôla, ae m. (PLIN.; MART.; 1843 TRAPPEN 30)  ► librârius, i m. (SEN.; Gell.)

07 brochure, pamphlet 

07 brochure: leaflet  folium plicatile (cf. Fr. dépliant)

07 censure (e.g., a book, film, author)  censûra afficere (1652 TURS. 338: "origo huius velitationis ex libris censurâ affectis."  ► censûrâ notâre (1652 TURS. 342: "Emundus Richer, qui ob libellum de ecclesiasticâ et politicâ potestate censurâ notatus fuerat"; 356: "duo libri ... gravi censûrâ notati sunt")

07 dedicate  ► nuncupare  ¶  ► dedicare /

07 dedication (in book)  nuncupatio, ônis f. (PLIN.)  ► dedicatio, ônis f., nuncupatûra, ae* f. (HOVEN)

07 encyclopedia  libri encyclopaedici*, encyclopaedia, ae* f.

07 font, typeface (e.g., Arial, Times New Roman)  < typorum (v. formularum) series (v. genus)  < character, êris (*) m. ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v, of citations placed in margin with a distinct typeface: "Citata auctorum nomina et loca, quae nullo antea discrimine cernebantur, suis singula notis, et diversitate characteris ab ipso textu secrevimus."

07 font: font sytle (e.g., bold, italics, regular)  <

07 format: folio 

07 format: octavo  liber in forma octava editus (cf. Ducrue 220)

07 format: quarto  liber in forma quarta editus (1784 DUCRUE 220)

07 illustration  ► îcon, îconis f. (especially of a realistic, precisely drawn representation, as images of plants in botanical works)  ¶ 1794 RUIZ title page.  ¶ 1798 DESFONTAINES v: "Synonyma auctorum adieci qui iconibus aut descriptionibus rem herbariam illustrarunt."  ¶ 1811 PALLAS xii.  < figûra, ae f. ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v-vi, on the celebrated woodcuts illustrating Mercuriale's De arte gymnastica: "Ad figuras quidem ipsas quod attinet, non alias hîc tibi et publico offerimus quam quas insignis antiquiarius Pyrrhus Ligorius Mercuriali obtulit, maximorum curâ artificum designatas, et ... non sine maximis impensis ligno insculptas. Et harum quidem figurarum ut non leve artificium est, ita sors quoque minime vulgaris semper fuit. Etenim non paucos ... videre mihi contigit, qui linguae Latinae rudes, hôc solo figurarum artificio ducti, hunc librum avide et ambabus quod aiunt manibus venerabundi exciperent."

07 incunabula  specimina artis typographicae primordialis (v. primaevae v. primigeniae)  ► primordialia (v. primaeva v. primigenia) artis typographicae specimina, artis typographicae velut incunabulorum specimina  ►► Cf. EGGER R.A. 142: "huc accedunt amplius octo milia 'incunabulorum' artis typographicae."

07 introduction (to a book)  |  (of an entire book, as introducing a complex subject or a larger work)  ► prodromus, i (*) m.  ¶ 1810 BROWN vi: "in prodromo operis futuri." 1794 RUIZ xviii: "Novorum generum volumen, veluti totius operis prodromum, praemittendum e re duximus."

07 introduction: preface  ► praefâtio, ônis f.  ¶ Plin.  Quint. 

07 manuscript  ► liber manu scriptus  ¶ Gesenius xii.  ► exemplar manu scriptum  ¶ Septuagint, "Praef."  ► codex manu scriptus  ¶ Septuagint, "Praef."  ► manuscriptum, i* n.  ¶ 1784DUCRUE 255.  1843 TRAPPEN 7.  ► codex, icis m.  ¶ Septuagint, "Praef.": "exemplaria manu scripta ... quibus deinde cum codice Vaticanae bibliothecae saepe et diligenter comparatis."  1794RUIZ vii (corresponding to "manuscritos" in accompanying Spanish translation).  HASE v: "Historiam Michaelis Pselli quam e codice descriptam Latineque versum in scriniis habeo." 

07 map  ► tabula geographica  ¶ Ducange s.v. mappa mundi in definition, quoted below. EGGER R.A. 142.  ► mappa (+) geographica  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 46.  ► mappa, ae (+) f.  ¶ 1784DUCRUE 234.  ► mappa (+) mundi (properly, of a map of the entire earth)  ¶ Ducange: "2. MAPPA MUNDI, Charta vel mappa explicata, in quâ orbis seu mundi descriptio continetur ... quarum quidem tabularum geographicarum primum auctorem fuisse Anaximandrum ... tradit Eustathius. ... Gervasius Tilleberiensis lib. 2, Otior. Imperial.: 'Considerantes quod ipsa pictorum varietas mendaces efficit de locorum varietate picturas, quas mappam mundi vulgus nominat.'" c.1300 MARCO POLO A 448, describing Ceylon: "Antiquitus fuit maior, quia girabat 1,600 miliaria, sicut dicit mappa mundi."  ► tabula chôrographica*  ► chôrographia, ae f.  ► (alicuius terrae) descriptio  ¶ Ducange s.v. mappa mundi in definition, quoted above.

07 paperback  liber chartâ contectus (v. involutus) (HELFER)  |  see also handbook

07 paperback: handbook, small book, concise edition (cf. Fr. livre de poche, Ger. Taschenbuch)  enchîridium, i n. (DIG.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 266; RABELAIS 945: "libro ... in enchiridii formam redacto," of an in-16o)  |  ERASMUS)  ► liber manuâlis (cf. Gesenius ix: lexicon manuale) 

07 parts: appendix  auctârium, i n., appendix, icis f. (PERUGINI, Concordata v; Index  86), πάρεργον / parergon -i n (Thomas Vallaurius, “Historia Critica Litterarum Latinarum accedit parergon aliquot monumentorum latini sermonis vetustioris” 1850)

07 parts: chapter (division of book)  caput, itis n. (CIC. Leg. 1, 21; CIC. Fam. 7, 22; Septuagint, "Praef.," of a manuscript of the Septuagint: "cum toto exemplari nulla capitum divisio sit."  ►capitulum, i n. (TERT.; HIER.; DANTE Vulg. El. 329)

07 parts: dedicatory letter (in book)  epistola nuncupatôria+ (RABELAIS 957)

07 parts: figure (diagram or delineation, esp. illustrating text of a book)  figûra, ae (+) f. DANTE Aqua 470: "ut patet in figura signata," of accompanying figure, marked with letters explained in text)

07 parts: index  index rerum principalium (Rabikauskas 3)  ► index rerum notabilium (Rabikauskas 159)  ► index rerum et verborum (Hase vi)

07 parts: table (in book), chart  tabula, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 41; Pharm. Austr. xx)  ► tabella, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 40)  ► conspectus, ûs m. 1843 TRAPPEN 45)

07 parts: table of contents  rerum conspectus, index synopticus*

07 print (e.g., book)  typis (v. formulis) imprimere, typis excûdere (RABELAIS 944)  ► excûdere (RABELAIS 942, 946: "[librum] excudendum in exemplaria bis mille dedi."  ► excûdere (1571MATTIOLI 110, of woodcut accompanying text: "musae imaginem ... excudi curavimus."  ► imprimere (1652 TURS. 239: "ratio imprimendorum librorum apud Germanos inventa, magno ingeniorum compendio")  |  The book is now in print.  ► Liber sub prelo sudat.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i.

07 print: page-proof, proof  plagula, ae (*) f. (ERASMUS; 1698 Hofmann vii: "diligentiam maximam adhibui plagulis libri singulis accurate perspiciendis, ne lector typographiae vitiis haereret dubius."  ► specimen typographicum (Gesenius xi: "in speciminibus typographicis castigandis")

07 print: proofread, copy-edit  ►

07 print: proofreader  ►corrector, ôris m. / 1672 FRISIUS v: "Incredibile dictu est quam hîc incuriâ typographi simul et correctoris a verâ lectione recessum sit longius." 

07 printer (person who prints books)  ► typographus, i* m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 356.  ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v: "Incredibile dictu est quam hîc incuriâ typographi simul et correctoris a verâ lectione recessum sit longius."  ► chalcographus, i* m.  ¶ HOVEN.  ¶ RABELAIS 945.  |  send (a book) to the printer  ► (librum) excudendum dare  ¶ RABELAIS 946.  ► (librum) prêlo mandare  ¶ 1652 TURS. "Elogium Auctoris." 

07 printing  typographia, ae* f., chalcographia, ae* f. (HOVEN)  |  adj.  typographicus, a, um,* chalcographicus, a, um* (HOVEN)  |  since the invention of the printing press  post inventam typographiam (1811 PALLAS xvii)

07 printing press  prêlum (typographicum*)  |  hot off the press  a prelo madidus

07 printing: typesetter  typotheta, ae* m. (EGGER L.D.I. 6)

07 publication (act of publishing)  ► editio, ônis f.  ¶ Sen.  Quint.  1794 RUIZ iv: "Philippo IV editionis impensas erogante."  1794 RUIZ xv: "Quaecumque ad manuscriptorum editionem opus essent, diligenter apparanda persuasit."

07 publish  ► êdere  ► in lucem êdere  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ i.  ► divulgare  ► evulgare  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v.  ► publici iuris facere  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxvi.  ► foras dare  ¶ HASE v. |  be published  ► prodîre in lucem  ► prodîre  ¶ 1652 TURS. 356. 1794 RUIZ iv.  |  send to the publisher, have published  ► typis mandare  ¶ 1652 TURS. 301.

07 publisher, publishing house  < bibliopôlium, i* n. < 1672 FRISIUS vi, on the Venice printing and publishing houses of La Nou and the Giunta family: "Huius rei gratia ... carissimo fratri meo Ioanni La Nou, eruditorum omnium fautori eximio, et bibliopolae apud Venetos non postremo, debetur, cuius erga bonas artes affectu factum est ut non minimam typographiae et bibliopolii Juntarum partem ... impensis haud sane levibus suam fecerit."    < taberna librâria êditôria ¶ EGGER S.L. 25.  ► societas êditôria ¶ EGGER S.L. 24-25.  ►► domus êditôria ¶ EGGER S.L. 24-25. 

07 read  \\ legere  \\ perlegere  \\ lectitare  \\ evolvere  \\ percurrere  |  want to read  \\ lecturire  \ Sid.

07 read: skim (a book, article)  \\ strictim legere  \\ vellicatim legere  \ RABELAIS 936.

07 read: speed-reading  ►    ¶ Cf. QUINT. 10, 7, 11: "Est igitur usus quidam irrationalis, quam Graeci  άλογον τριβην vocant, quâ manus in scribendo decurrit, quâ oculi totos simul in lectione versûs flexûsque eorum et transitûs intuentur, et ante sequentia vident quam priora dixerunt."

07 reprint (vb.), republish  ► repetere  ¶ 1698 HOFMANN v: "in praefatione sua, quam ideo in hac alterâ editione repetendam censui."  ► recûdere (+)  ¶ 1726 WOLFF 8.  1784 THUNBERGxxvi: "Herbarium ... primum impressum est in China, deinde in Iaponia aliquatenus nitidius recusum."  1794 RUIZ xx.

07 review  (written judgment of book, film, play, etc.)  existimâtio, ônis f.

07 review: critic, one who write book, movie or theater reviews  existimâtor, ôris m. (CIC. Or. 112)

07 title  (of book, article)  titulus, i m., inscriptio, onis f., lemma, atis n. (1540 VIVES Exer. 340)  |  the title of the book is The Satiricon  liber inscribitur Satiricon

07 title: headword  lemma, atis n.

07 volume  (book)  ► tomus, i m.  ► volûmen, inis n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ vi.  Hase 4.  EGGER S.L. 24.

08

08    JOURNALISM

08 journalist  diurnarius, i m. (EGGER D.L. 33)

08 magazine, periodical, journal  ► ephemerides, um (*) f. pl.  ¶ In antiquity, of personal diary.  In this sense: 1826 LÜDERS 2: "in ephemeridibus quibus titulus Nordisches Archiv," of a scientific journal.  GAUSS V, 32: "in ephemeridibus Ticinensibus (Giornale di fisica T. 9)", of scientific journal.  ► ephemeris, idis f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 46: "ephemeris Germanica imaginibus ornata, cui titulis 'Stella' (Stern)."  ► commentarii periodici (m. pl.)  ► commentarium periodicum  ¶ EGGER S.L. 101.  ► periodicum, i n.  ► diarium, i n.  ¶ Wolff 8, of the 18th c., Jesuit-sponsored Journal de Trévoux, which appeared monthly: "Diarii Trevoltensis auctores."

08 magazine: issue (of a periodical)  ► fasciculus, i (*) m.  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxvi: "Kaempferus ... fasciculos suos quinque Amoenitatum Exoticarum ... publici iuris fecit."

08 magazine: newspaper  ► ephemerides, um (*) f. pl. (also of other periodicals)  ¶ In antiquity, of personal diary.  In this sense: 1826 LÜDERS v: "Patet ex nuperrime editis Ephemeridibus Altonanis (Alt. Merc. Sept. 12, 1826)."  1843 TRAPPEN 25, of London coffee-houses: "praeter praecipuam tabernam Lloydsii, ubi ephemerides, diaria, quaelibetve alia nuncia ex omnibus fere orbis exculti locis reperiebantur."  EGGER S.L. 94.  ► ephemerides publicae (f. pl.)  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 3.  ► acta diurna n. pl.  ► diarium, i n.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 25.  EGGER D.L. 58. EGGER S.L. 94.

08 media, news media  nuntiorum divulgatio, nuntiorum divulgatores, societates (v. sedes) nuntiorum divulgatrices  ►► instrumenta communicationis socialis (Vat. II; EGGER S.L. 60)  ► communicatio socialis (EGGER D.L. 44) 

08 news  (television broadcast)  acta diurna televisifica (EGGER L.D.I. 105)

08 news agency  sedes nuntiis divulgandis (EGGER D.L. 50)  ► sedes diurnariis edocendis (EGGER S.L. 88: "Reuteriana sedes diurnariis edocendis")

08 news photographer, photojournalist  relator photographus* (EGGER D.L. 25; EGGER S.L. 34)

08 reporter  relator, ôris m. (EGGER S.L. 47; EGGER S.L. 94, of television reporter)

08 subscribe  (to a periodical)  ►► "subnotare commentarios periodicos" (LRL, etc.) should mean "write notes at end of a periodical"; cf. PLIN. Ep. 1, 10, 9: "sedeo pro tribunali, subnoto libellos [I annotate petitions], conficio tabulas, scribo ... litteras"  ►► Ch. Frisch, ed., Joannis Kepleri astronomi opera omnia (Frankfurt, 1858)  ► vol. 1, page following dedication: "Libri emptores se professi sunt nominis subscriptione," introducing a list of subscribers to a multi-volume edition.

08 tabloid 

09

09    LITERATURE

09 anthology  ► florilegium, i (*) n.  ¶ HOVEN citing ERASMUS.  ► spicilegium, i (*) n.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ i.  ►  chrêstomathia, ae* f.  ¶  ► anthologia, ae* f.  ¶

09 circulate, be in circulation (of book)  circumferri (QUINT. 2, 13, 15: "si quem ex his, qui breves plerumque circumferuntur, artis libelleum edidicerit"; QUINT. 2, 15, 4: "haec opinio originem ab Isocrate – si tamen re verâ 'Ars' quae circumfertur eius est – duxit"; RABELAIS 944: "ea [exemplaria] quae vulgo circumferuntur")

09 excerpt  excerptum, i n. (QUINT.; SEN.)

09 fiction, non-fiction

09 fictional  fictîvus, a, um+ (DANTE Ep. 439, describing the Divine Comedy: "modus tractandi est poeticus, fictivus."  ► fictiôsus, a, um (Ps.-Cypr. Aleat. 7, cited in Gaffiot)

09 genre: article (short piece of non-fiction writing, esp. in a newspaper, journal, or other periodical)  ► opusculum, i n.  ►  commentatio, onis f. 1752 STUMPF 35, of seven-page article within a book.  ► symbola, ae f. (a "contribution" to a periodical or jointly authored book) 

09 genre: article: dissertation, thesis  ► dissertâtio inaugurâlis  ¶ Title page of most dissertations published in Latin, 17th to 20th century.  ► dissertâtio, ônis f.  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 32.  1752STUMPF 1st letter of commendation (back of book): "Gratulor dissertationem tuam exquisite conscriptam."  ► specimen inaugûrâle  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 7: "dum specimen inaugurale pro obtinendis summis in medicinâ honoribus edere paramus."  ► dissertâtio acadêmica  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 9.  ► specimen, inis n. (with doctrinae or other specifier)  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 2nd letter of commendation (in back of book), praising a doctoral dissertation: "ex praestantissimo doctrinae tuae specimine, quod iam ... defensum is."  1843 TRAPPEN title page: "Specimen historico-medicum de coffea quod ... pro gradu doctoratus ... eruditorum examini submittit Johannes Everhardus van der Trappen."  1843 TRAPPEN praef.: "Dicere possem ... de molesta quae tunc civibus academicis incumbit lex, ut quoddam specimen, acquisitarum doctrinarum testimonium, praestent."  |  defend a dissertation (or thesis)  ► dissertationem (v. specimen) publice defendere  ¶ Title page of many published dissertations; e.g., 1752 STUMPF title page: "dissertatio inauguralis ... quam ... in Alma Regio Fridericiana publice defendet auctor."  1752 STUMPF 2nd letter of commendation (in back of book), praising a doctoral dissertation: "ex praestantissimo doctrinae tuae specimine, quod iam ex cathedrâ, applaudentibus omnibus bonis, defensum is."   1846 GROSSE 32: "dissertatione thesibusque publice defensis."  Cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 337: "is est propugnator qui impetum omnium sustinet," of a dissertation defense.  ► dissertationem sustinêre  ¶ 1771 WAYtitle page: "Dissertatio medica inauguralis, de variolarum insitione, quam ... sustinuit Nicolaus Way."

09 genre: article: paper, scholarly work, treatise  ► commentâtio, ônis f.  ¶ Plin.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ i. dissertâtio, ônis f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 15.  ► tractatio, onis (*) f.  ¶ Bonon.Acad. I, 311.  ► tractâtus, ûs (+) m.  ¶ DANTE Monarchia 356: "et quia praesens tractatus est inquisitio quaedam."  LATHAM.  1826 LÜDERS 7, of a medical treatise.  ► specimen, inis n.

09 genre: biographer  (alicuius) vîtae scriptor, vîtarum scriptor, qui vîtas aliorum scribit (Capitol. Macr. 1, 2: "sed eius qui vitas aliorum scribere orditur officium est digna cognitione perscribere")

09 genre: biography  (alicuius) vîta, ae (Index 90: "propter vitam primo volumini praemissam")

09 genre: biography: autobiographer  vîtae suae scriptor

09 genre: biography: autobiography, write one's  vîam suam scribere

09 genre: diary  ► ephemerides, um f. pl.  ¶ CIC.  SEN.  PLIN.  ► acta diurna (n. pl.)  ¶ EGGER S.L. 46.  ►► "Periodicals" (or "newspapers") may be distinguished as "ephemerides publicae."

09 genre: essay  ►

09 genre: novel  fabula (v. liber) Romanensis (Huet; see below Krebs and Heinichin)  ► histôria Romanensis (Leibniz, Werke III. III. 72, of mathematical works he had read carelessly: "paene legebam ut historias Romanenses"), fabula Milesia (EGGER L.D.I. 105; Katterfeld 416: "poeta [scil. Aeschylus] non imprudentes nos opprimit nec rem in fine fabulae in summo momento relinquit, ut scriptores historiae Romanensis, qui eâ re ad exspectationem augendam utuntur."  ► fabula amâtôria (Index 36: "Balzac, Honoré de, Omnes fabulae amatoriae"; term used throughout the Index for condemned novels)  ► ? mythistoria, ae f. (Capitol. Macr. 1, 3; cf. Mod. Gr.  μυθιστορια μυθιστορημα , novel)  ►► Nineteenth-century purists recognizing fabula Romanensis, liber Romanensis as the Neo-Latin term for "novel" (and therefore condemning it):  Krebs s.v. Romanensis: "Romanensis or Romanticus liber is the Neo-Latin term corresponding to our word 'novel,' but cannot be used without a clarifying and mitigating expression.  What the ancients called fabula Milesia was almost the same thing, and that term is best used for the novel; others say liber fabulosus or historia fabulosa."  Heinichin 42:  "Romanensis liber, novel, Neo-Latin; best replaced by fabula Milesia."   || Dubito utrum mythistoria competat.  Invenitur apud antiquos semel tantum, in Historia Augustamythistoricus semel quoque, in alia Historiae Augustae vita.  Spectant haec voces ad fabellas parum graves de rebus historicis.  ||  Capitolinus, Opellius Macrinus 1, 3-5: "Et Iunio quidem Cordo studium fuit eorum imperatorum vitas edere quos obscuriores videbat.  Qui non multum profecit; nam et pauca repperit et indigna memoratu, adserens se minima quaeque persecuturum, quasi vel de Traiano aut Pio aut Marco sciendum sit, quotiens processerit, quando cibos variaverit et quando vestem mutaverit et quos quando promoverit.  Quae ille omnis exsequendo libros mythistoriis replevit talia scribendo, cum omnino rerum vilium aut nulla scribenda sint aut nimis pauca."  Trans. Magie (Loeb series): "By searching out all this sort of thing and recording it, he filled his books with gossip."  Trans. Burcan (Budé series): "À force de quêter tous ces détails, il a rempli ses livres de romans historiques en notant de pareilles vetilles"; note ad 1, 5: "mythistoriis: Locution propre a l'HA; cf. Q 1, 2 (ou Marius Maximus est crédité de mythistorica volumina et correlativement dénigré).  Il s'agit d'une historiographe d'historiettes (fabellae) assaisonnée de ragots [gossip]: 'legat Cordum qui haec omnia usque ad fabellam scripsit' (Max., 31, 4).  Fabella equivaut ici comme mythistoria à l'acception méprisante et péjorative du grec μυθους λεγειν."  ||  ThLGr: " μυθιστοριαης,Historia fabularis, ut SUET. in Tib.: Maxime tamen curavit historiae fabularis notitiam usque ad ineptias atque derisum.  Aelius Spart. in suis Historiis [Macrin. c. 1 (qui in edd. Capitolini)] citat aliquando μυθιστοριας. Bud."  ||  Forc.:  "mythistoria ... narratio fabulosa et frivola ... Capitol. Marcrin. 1.  ||  Forc. "fabularis ... idem ac fabulosus, ut Historia fabularis in qua multa falsa.  SUET. Tib. 70. Maxime tamen curavit historiae fabularis notitiam."  ||  ThLL: "mythistoria ... i.q. narratio fabulosa: Capitol. Opil. 1, 5 (de Iunio Cordo viliora quaeque de imperatoribus referente)"  ||  Vopiscus, Firmus, 1, 2 (noting that Suet and Marius Maximus omitted or passed over quickly minor tyrant-emperors): "Et de Suetonio non miramur, cui familiare fuit amare brevitatem.  Quid Marius Maximus, homo omnium verbosissimus, qui et mythistoricis se voluminibus implicavit, num ad istam descriptionem descendit?"  Trans. Magie (Loeb series): "who involved himself in pseudo-historical works."  ||  Forc.: "mythistoricus ... fabulosus, mixtus ex historia et fabulis, ut mythistorica volumina, Vopisc. Firm. 1"  ||  ThLL: "mythistoricus ... i.q. narrationes fabulosas continens: Vopisc. quatt. tyr. 1, 2"  ||  Christian 1698 Hofmann, Dissertatio mythistorica de terrore panico ([Jenae?], 1669).  Hoc tantum apud WC inveni; puto me et aliubi apud recentiores vocem mythistoricus vidisse, ita adhibitam ut significare videretur, tamquam in dissertatione citata, "ad criticam fabularum veterum investigationem pertinens."

09 literature  ? humaniores litterae

09 myth  veterum (v. antîquôrum) fâbula, fâbula, ae f. (1652 TURS. 15: "Graecorum heroes ... haud exigua materia fabularum, Hercules, Orpheus, Castor, Pollux."  ► fâbulâris histôria (EGGER R.A. 23: "sarcophagus fabularem historiam exhibens Meleagri")

09 myth: /mythology  (myths, collectively)  veterum (v. antîquôrum) fâbulae;  (study of myths)  mythologia, ae f.

09 myth: folk- (as in folklore, folktale, folksong, folk music)  ► vernâculus, a, um (with defining gen.)  ► rustic(ân)us, a, um  ► ? pâgânicus, a, um  |  Bartok traveled all over Hungary to hear and transcribe folk songs.  ► Bartok totam Hungariam perlustravit ad cantilenas vernaculas audiendas notisque excipiendas.

09 myth: legend, traditional or popular account (rather than one based on historical evidence)  ► traditio, ônis f.  ¶ Gell. 13, 23, 14: "Per quod apparet non esse id poetice a Plauto dictum, sed eam quoque traditionem fuisse ut Nerio a quibusdam uxor esse Martis diceretur."  1826 LÜDERS 1: "Incipit historia vacciolarum a traditionibus, quas quidem in Holsatia usque ad saeculi praeterlapsi initium persequi licet. Antiquiorum temporum traditiones ad vacciolarum aevum mythicum referendae sunt, nec criticês historicae examen perferunt."  Ibid. 7: "Medicus hic in tractatu suo traditiones potius refert inter rusticanos Anglicanos de vacciolis celebres quam observationes proprias."  Ibid. 28: "Num alia huius cognitionis vestigia in veterum Indorum traditionibus et scriptis reperiunda sint," etc.  ► vulgi traditio  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 1: "vulgi traditiones de vacciolis.  Cf. ibid. 8: "Plures ex ori vulgi receptas traditiones de vacciolis in Holsatiae vaccis observatis promulgavit."

09 mythological, mythical, legendary  ► fâbulôsus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 8: "per idem tempus Promotheus et Atlas egregii astrologi exsisterunt, fabulosis Graecis carminibus inclyti."  ►mŷthicus, a, um  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 1: " Antiquiorum temporum traditiones ad vacciolarum aevum mythicum referendae sunt, nec criticês historicae examen perferunt."

09 patron (of a writer or scholor or artist, of learning, the arts, etc.)  ► Maecênâs, âtis m. (used since Renaissance as common noun)  ¶ RABELAIS 943: "Saluta mihi ... antistitem Malleacensem, Maecenatem meum."  1752 STUMPF dedication page: "Antonio Balthasar de Walther ... domino ac mecenati suo perquam gratiosos."  1811 PALLAS iii-iv: "comiti Alexio Cyrilli filio Rasumofsky ... Maecenati egregio."  ► fautor, ôris m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 240: doctrinae fautor (patron of learning).  ► prômôtor, ôris+ m.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xx: "botanices promotoribus" ("patrons of botanical research")

09 patron of the arts  ► artium bonarum (v. elegantium) fautor  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v: "Carolus III ... bonarum artium scientiarumque fautor egregius."  ► Maecênâs, âtis m.

09 patronage (of arts, learning, etc.)  ► patrocinium, i n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ viii: "de regum nostrorum providentiâ, eorumque erga botanicen et historiam naturalem patrocinio."  1794 RUIZ xvi: "Potissimum locum in regium animum sibi vindicavit fructuosarum artium et scientiarum patrocinium."

09 poem genre: ballad  ballata, ae+ f. (DANTE Vulg. El. 339)

09 poem genre: canzone (sort of lyric poem)  cantio, ônis (+) f. (DANTE Vulg. El. 339)

09 poem genre: epic  carmen epicum (QUINT.)  ► epos n. (found only nom. and acc.) (HOR.; MART. )  ► carmen herôum (QUINT.; Prop.)  ► carmen herôicum (TAC.; SERV.)

09 poem genre: haiku  epigramma Iaponicum, carmen heptadecasyllabum* (the compound heptadecastichum means "of seventeen syllables." 

09 poem genre: improvised or impromptu poem  schedium, i n. (PETR.; APUL.; cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 340: "profer ... mea schedia in quibus libet nonnulla expolire."  ► carmen tumultuarium (SID. Ep. 2, 10)

09 poem genre: madrigal   carmen ?matri(c)ale

09 poem genre: ode  ôdê, ês f. (Porph. HOR.)  ► ôda, ae f. (Philom.)

09 poem genre: refrain, chorus (recurring part of song)  responsôrium, i n. (in late antiquity, of congregation's spoken response or refrain: Ambros.; Greg. Tur.; from ML, of refrain in poetry or music: DANTE Vulg. El. 347; BADELLINO)

09 poem genre: sonnet  sonêtum, i* n. (Noël; HELFER)  ► sonettum, i* n. (BARTAL; Mir-Calvano)  ► carmen tetradecastichum* (BARTAL s.v. sonneta in def.; the compoundtetradecastichum means "of fourteen lines."  ►► LRL: carmen quattuordecim hendadecasyllaborum (at hoc peculiare est Italorum sonnetorum).  DANTE Vulg. El. 339: sonitus.

09 poem lines: distich  \\ distichon, i n. \ MART.  \ SUET.

09 poem lines: quatrain  \\ tetrastichon, i n. \ QUINT.

09 poem lines: tercet, triplet  \\ tristichon, i* n.

09 poem meter: alexandrine, twelve-syllable French verse  versus Alexandrînus (v. dôdecasyllabus)  (for adj. dôdecasyllabus, see Souter)

09 poem meter: hendecasyllable, eleven-syllable verse  hendecasyllabus, i m. (PLIN. Ep.)  |  a poem composed of hendecasyllables  carmen hendecasyllabum (DANTE Vulg. El.342)

09 poem meter: octosyllable, eight-syllable verse  versus octosyllabus

09 poem part: canto (as in Dante's Divine Comedy, or Spenser's Fairy Queen)  cantus, ûs m. (DANTE Ep. 439, describing the structure of the Divine Comedy: "prima divisio est quâ totum opus dividitur in tres canticas; secunda, quae quaelibet cantica dividitur in cantûs")

09 poem part: stanza, verse (group of lines of poetry), strophe  stropha, ae f., ? stantia, ae+ f. (DANTE Vulg. El. 346: "dicimus ergo quod cantio [the canzone as a poetic form] ... est aequalium stantiarum sine responsorio ad unam sententiam tragicam coniugatio."

09 poem: rhyme  subst.   homoeoteleuton, i n. (MART. Cap.; Charis.)  ►► rhythmus (DANTE Vulg. El. 351: "aliud est stantia cuius omnia carmina eundum rithimum reddunt ... sunt etenim quidam qui non omnes quandoque desinentias carminum rithimantur in eadem stantia"; DANTE Vulg. El. 352: "eiusdem rithimi repercussio")

09 poem: rhyme  v.i.

09 poet laureate  poêta laurêtus, poêta laureâ dônâtus (1652 TURS. 222: "pontifex ... Franciscum Petrarcham poetam nobilissimum in capitolium invectum laureâ donari iubet")

09 posthumous (of book, work of art)  postumus, a, um (Index 36: "opus postumum," of book)

09 rhapsode

09 text  ► contextus, ûs m.  \ DANTE Ep. 415 of a biblical passage: "sacrae vocis contextui."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 23: "Vitruvii contextui non mutato, sed in aliquibus tantum melius ordinato."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 85, of the text of the targums (Aramaic translations of the Hebrew Bible) : "contextus sacrorum librorum Syriacus."  \\ verborum contextus  \ EGGER R.A. 7: "ut narratiunculis et commentariolis verborum amplificetur contextus."  ► textus, ûs m. \ PERUGINI, Concordata 2.

092

092    PHILOLOGY

092 archeological  archaeologicus, a, um* (EGGER D.L. 17)  ► ? angîologicus, a, um*

092 archeologist  archaeologus, i* m. (EGGER S.L. 23, 108)  ► ? angîologus, i* m.  ►► At "archaeologus" potius "classicist" sonat.

092 archeology  archaeologia, ae* f., ? angîologia, ae* f.,

092 archeology: excavate (archeology)  effodere (EGGER S.L. 93; EGGER R.A. 11: "in aedibus quarum parietinae sunt ex parte effossae")

092 archeology: excavations, archeological dig  effossiones, um f. pl. (EGGER S.L. 23)  ► fossiones, um f. pl. (EGGER R.A. 57 133)  |  excavate  effodere, eruere (RABELAIS 956: "id [temporis] lubens collustrandis Urbis monumentis dabas; nec tibi fuit satis exposita vidisse, eruenda etiam curasti")

092 bibliography  bibliographia, ae* f. (Rabikauskas 3)  ► index bibliographicus* (Rabikauskas 152)

092 citation (of book or other written work)  < citâtio, onis f. ¶ 1811 PALLAS xiii.  < citâta auctorum nômina et loca  ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v, of citations placed in margin: "Citata auctorum nomina et loca, quae nullo antea discrimine cernebantur, suis singula notis, et diversitate characteris ab ipso textu secrevimus."

092 cite (a source)  ► laudare  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 3: "iam supra laudatus," referring to a work previously cited.  ► citare \\ 1752 STUMPF 38: "in libro citato," referring to a work previously cited.

092 cite:  above (before or earlier, in a book or other written  work)  < suprâ  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 3: "iam supra laudatus," referring to a work previously cited.   < superius

092 cite:  below (after or later, in a book or other written  work)  < infrâ  < inferius  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 22: "Ante Neronis quoque tempora fuisse Romae gymnasia ex PlautiBacchidibus, cuius locum apponam inferius, colligere licet."

092 classic, classical  ► classicus, a, um (1540 VIVES Exer. 336: "eruditissimos et acerrimo iudicio scriptores sibi sumunt, optimos quosque, et eos quos classicos vos grammatici appellatis";EGGER L.D.I. 111: "praestantium auctorum, quos classicos dicimus"; EGGER R.A. 142: "Museum Gregorianum Profanum abundant artis operis, quae aetate 'classicâ,' quam dicunt, sunt fabre facta")

092 classic: a classic (book)  ► liber classicus  ¶ 1726 Wolff 10: "Usus sum in citandis Sinarum libris classicis verione ... Coupleti."

092 classicist, classical scholar  ►antiquârius, i m.  ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v-vi, on Pirro Ligorio, 16th-c. artist, classical scholar, and superintendent of ancient monuments for two popes: "Ad figuras quidem ipsas quod attinet, non alias hîc tibi et publico offerimus quam quas insignis antiquarius Pyrrhus Ligorius Mercuriali obtulit, maximorum curâ artificum designatas, et ... non sine maximis impensis ligno insculptas."  ►antiquitâtis perîtus  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 21, of Pirro Ligorio, mentioned above: "Ligorius antiquitatis totius peritissimus."  ► rerum antiquarum perîtus  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 77-78, of two 16th-c. classical scholars: "Petrus Ciacconius et Fulvius Ursinus, rerum antiquarum pertissimi."  \ EGGER R.A. 57.  ►antiquitâtis studiôsus \ EGGER R.A. 48.  ¶ Cf. RABELAIS 957: "ascitis ... iuvenibus honestissimis, antiquitatisque studiosiossimis."  ¶ Cf. also KOPP 2: "Inter philologos etiam, aliosque qui antiquitatis studio tenentur, raro reperies veterum scripturarum curiosum."  ► palaeologus, i* m.  \\ \\ Antiquarius seems must often to refer to those who study the customs and mores or the extant physical remains of antiquity, as opposed to its literature.

092 classics, classical studies, study of ancient Greek and Roman civilization  ► antiquitates (Graecae et Romanae) (f. pl.)  ► studia antiquitatis (Graecae et Romanae)  ¶ Sillig i.  ► palaeologia, ae* f. ► philologia Graeca et Romana (study of Greek and Latin literature)

092 conjecture (editorial)  coniectûra, ae f. (Septuagint, "Praef.": "satius est visum locos vel aliquo modo suspectos ... relinqui quam eos ex alicuius ingenio aut coniecturâ emendari")

092 edit (prepare a text for publication; esp., produce a text in accordance with principles of textual criticism)  êmendare (Septuagint, "Praef.": "sed emendationis consilio iam explicato, ipsa quoque ratio quae in emendando adhibita est nunc erit aperienda"; cf. HIER. Ep. 112, 20: "si me ... in Novi Testamenti emendatione suscipis."  ► castigare (Septuagint, "Praef.":"effecit ut summus Pontifex Gregorius XIII Graeca Septuginta interpretum biblia, adhibitâ diligenti castigatione, in pristinum splendorem restituenda curaret."  ► recensêre

092 edition  (version of a book, consisting of a set of copies published together)  \\ êditio, ônis f.  \ QUINT. 5, 11, 40, of the varying ancient editions of Homer: "Megarios ab Atheniensibus .. victos Homeri versu, qui tamen ipse non in omni editione reperitur."  \ HIER. Ep. 112, 19: "ex Theodotionis editione."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 22, in a second edition: "in primâ editione."  \ Septuagint praef., of the Sixtine edition of the Septuagint: "nova haec editio."  |  (a text, esp. of a classical work, established by a particular editor in accordance with principles of textual criticism)  \\ recensio, ônis f.  \

092 figurative, symbolic  fîgûrâtus, a, um (SERV.)  ► fîgûrâlis, e (Ruf.)  |  figuratively, symbolically  fîgûrâtê (SERV.; DANTE Vulg. El. 320: "Ovidius ... hoc figurate dicit."  ► fîgûrâliter (SID.; TERT.)

092 figurative: allegorical, mystical or spiritual (of an interpretation)  allêgoricus, a, um (TERT. Res. 19; DANTE Ep. 438, on interpreting the Divine Comedy: "primus [sensus] dicitur litteralis, secundus vero allegoricus sive moralis vie anagogicus ... et quamquam isti sensûs mystici variis appellentur nominibus, generaliter omnes dici possunt allegorici, cum sint a litterali sive historiali diversi."  ► anagogicus, a, um+ (DANTE Ep. 438)

092 figure of speech  fîgûra, ae f. (QUINT.; PLIN. Ep.)  ► schêma, ae f.  ►► Ecquid interest inter figuram et schemam? (Gaffiot: illa "figure de style," haec "figure de rhétorique")

092 lacuna  (missing portion in text, manuscript)  lacuna, ae f. (EGGER R.A. 144: "litterati quidem conati sunt lacunas implere, sed coniecturali tantum ratione")

092 literary critic, commentator, one who engages in literary interpretation  (auctorum) interpres, etis (VIVES Stud. pueril. 276: "eget ista tua aetas etiam adultior interpretibus auctorum."  ► grammaticus, i m. (the term applies to those engaged in literary as well as language studies; 1540 VIVES Exer. 336)

092 literary scholar, scholar of literature, philologist (in broad sense)  philologus, i m. (SEN.; SUET.; Sillig i, of plans for an edition of Pliny's Historia Naturalis: "animo obsersabatur editio a philologo aliquo pluribusque physicis communi operâ paranda, ut philologi partes essent in verbis scriptoris et emendandis et illustrandis")

092 literary studies, philology (in broad sense)  philologia, ae f.

092 literary studies: relating to literary studies, philological (in broad sense)  philologicus, a, um*, philologus, a, um (VITR. 6 prooem. 4: "philologis et philotechnis rebus me delectans." ►► Philologicus is much more common than philologus (used as an adjective) in titles of published books; the few examples of the latter are from the late 19th and 20th centuries (WC).

092 note, annotation, footnote, endnote  nota, ae f., adnotâtio, ônis f., animadversio, ônis f.

092 note: annotated  notis (v. adnotationibus v. animadversionibus) auctus (Index 8: "permittitur editio notis et animadversionibus Constantini Rocaglia aucta")

092 note: endnote  adnotâtio (v. nota) in calce posita (v. ad calcem relêgâta)

092 note: footnote  adnotâtio (v. nota) in imâ paginâ posita

092 paleographer  palaeographiae* perîtus (v. studiôsus)  ► antiquarius, i m. (LS: "one that understands reading and copying ancient manuscripts, COD. TH. 4, 8, 2; Aus. Ep. 16 al.."  ►► Atantiquarius sonat etiam "one that is fond of or employs himself about antiquities" (LS)  ► hoc est fere "classicist"; nescio igitur an hic sufficiat.  Palaeographus significare oportet "antiquus scriptor," vel "qui antiquo more scribit."

092 paleography  ars palaeographica*, palaeographia* critica (Kopp 3)  ► ars antiquaria (LS: "the art of reading and copying ancient manuscripts, HIER. Ep. ad Flor. 5, 1."  |  cf. res diplomatica* (Mabillon, De re diplomaticaKopp 3)  ► diplomatica, ae* f. (RabikauskasDiplomatica pontificia)  ►► The term (res) diplomatica is often used as approximately synonymous withpalaeographia; but when the terms are used precisely, diplomatica deals with official documents (such as deeds and charters)  ► palaeographia with writings of all sorts.  ||  Palaeographia apudMontfauconium (qui videtur primum hoc vocabulo esse usus, OED s.v. palaeography) idem valet ac "vetus scriptura"; hoc videtur mihi vox palaeographia paene necessario significare, potius quam "veteris scripturae legendae disciplina."  Attamen vide huius vocabuli apud Kopp usum.  Kopp 2: "Neque enim ulla bonarum artium magis neglecta ... iacet quam palaeographia, cuius perexiguam partem vix emplectuntur necessitate coacti artis diplomaticae studiosi.  Inter philologos etiam, aliosque qui antiquitatis studio tenentur, raro reperies veterum scripturarum curiosum.  Quos tamen ipsos, si palaeographia non imbuti sunt, cum doctis analphabetis haud iniuria comparaveris."  Kopp 3: "Equidem ab initio rei diplomaticae tantum operam navavi ... Sed haecce palaestra cum nimis angusta mihi deinde videretur ... iam primum spatium minus actis circumscriptum finisbus quaesivi, maiora gravioraque amplexus.  Quo factum est u palaeographiae criticae condendae magnos susciperem labores, quaelibet excutiens scripta sive in marmore, sive in aere, sive in membrana, sive in papyro, sive in argilla, sive in quavis alia materia."  Everado Audrich, Institutiones antiquariae, quibus praesidia pro graecis latinisque scriptoribus, nummis et marmoribus facilius intelligendis proponuntur, ac plurima ad numerorum et vocum compendia ad chronologiam etpalaeographiam spectantia accurate explicantur (Florentiae, 1756) [liber invenitur apud Univ. Cincinnati]

092 passage (in book or other written work)  < locus, i m. (pl. loci)  \ Cic.  \ Quint.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 22: "Ante Neronis quoque tempora fuisse Romae gymnasia ex PlautiBacchidibus, cuius locum apponam inferius, colligere licet."

092 semiotic (adj.)  ► sêmiôticus, a, um*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 35: "semiotica phaenomona," of medical semiotics.

092 semiotics, semiology  ► sêmiôticê, ês* f.  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 31, of medical semiotics, involving the interpretation of symptoms as signs of disease.  ► sêmiologia, ae f.

092 variants (textual), variant readings  variae lectiones (f. pl.)  ► lectionum varietates (f. pl.) (Septuagint, "Praef.")

102

102    SEE

102 audiovisual  ►► audivisificus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 57)

102 double vision, see double:  I'm seeing double  res mihi duplicantur in conspectu (1846 GROSSE 15, describing effects of cannabis: "oculi ... duplicabant res in conspectu")

102 glasses, eyeglasses, spectacles  ocularia vitrea (n. pl.) (Est I. 671, quoted below passim and specifically Bacci OIE 31 )  ► ocularia, ium* n. pl. (Ducange; Petrarch 2, describing himself: "vivacibus oculis et visu per longum tempus acerrimo, qui praeter spem supra sexagsimum aetatis annum me destituit, ut indignanti mihi ad ocularium confugiendum esset auxilium."  ► conspicilla, orum (*) n. pl. (PLAUT., apparently with meaning "vantage point"; of eyeglasses: Calepino s.v. conspicilia: "item quod oculis adhibemus ut melius intueamur; vulgo 'ocularia' dicuntur, perspicilla"; RABELAIS 942: "sic hallucinari necesse sit et caecutire nullis ut postea collyriis aut conspiciliis iuvari possint"; ERASMUS Coll.; Ducange s.v. ocularia in def.)  ► conspicilla (*) ocularia (n. pl.) (Erasmus Epist. III. 145: "pervenerat ille usque ad annum octogesimum, integris membris, vigentibus adhuc oculis, ut nec scipione nec conspicillis ocularibus esset opus."  ► perspicilla, orum (*) n. pl. (Ducange quoting from a 16c church register: "impegit pugnum apertum in faciem eiusdem deponentis, qui tunc habebat sua perspicilia in naso"; Est I. 671: "existimat Caietanus 'per speculum videre' sic intellegi posse quomodo videmus per ocularia vitrea, quae perspicilla vocantur, sed non est verisimile; solent enim huius modi adhiberi ad clarius videndum, maxime ab iis quibus ob senium visus deficit."  ►► The spellings conspicilia and perspicilia are also found.

102 glasses: contact, contact lens  ► lens adhaerens  ► lens exemptilis  ►► Misit Aloisius: "Dum te exspecto hic avide, lectitabam Politiani illius Lamiam, opus iucundum quidem et grave simul. Cuius in initio haec scripta vidi de ocularibus: 'Lamiam igitur hanc Plutarchus ille Chaeronaeus, nescio doctior an gravior, habere ait oculos exemptiles, hoc est quos sibi eximat detrahatque cum libuit, rursusque cum libuit resumat atque affigat: quemadmodum senes ocularia specilla solent, quibus hebescenti per aetatem visui opitulantur; nam et cum quid inspectare avent, insertant quasi forfici nasum, et cum satis inspectarunt, recondunt in theca.' Continuo post talia de dentibus ficticiis: 'Quidam vero etiam dentibus utuntur aeque exemptilibus, quos nocte non aliter reponunt quam togam.' Quae verba sequuntur haec de capillamentis: 'sicuti uxorculae quoque vestrae comam suam illam dependulam et cincinnos.'"

102 glasses: telescope, field glasses, opera glasses, instrument for viewing distant objects  perspicillum, i n. (ERASMUS; F. Bacon Works [1850] II. 484 [Nov. Org. II. 39]: "quale perspillum si vidisset Democritus, exsuiluisset forte, et modum videndi atomum .. inventum fuisse putasset"; LATHAM citing Newton)  ► conspicillum, i n. (Zwingli VI. II. 177)  ► tubus opticus (Galileo, etc.)  ► perspicillum, i* n.  ► têlescopium, i* n. (LATHAM citing Newton; EGGER S.L. 78)

102 glasses: telescope: binoculars  geminatum perspicillum* (EGGER R.A. 58)

102 glasses: telescope: periscope  ► periscopium, i* n.  ¶ Mod. Gr. περισκόπιο.

102 glasses: with the naked eye  nudis oculis (abl.) (GAUSS VI, 27: "cometa nudis quoque oculis valde conspicuus fuit."

102 lens  lens, ntis (*) f. (Bonon. Acad. I, 302: "lentem ex utroque parte convexam."  ► lenticula, ae (*) f. (Bonon. Acad. I, 303)

102 microscope  microscopium, i* n. (Bonon. Acad. I, 302EGGER D.L. 26)

102 opaque  impellucidus, a, um* (Pharm. Austr. xxvi)  ► luci impervius (Pharm. Austr. 16)

102 spectrum  ► spectrum, i (*) n.  ► ? phasma, atis* n.  ¶ Mod. Gr.  φασμα .

102 spectrum: infra-red  ► hyperythrus, a, um*  ¶ Mod. Gr. υπέρυθρος.

102 spectrum: prism  ►

102 spectrum: ultra-violet  ► hyeriôdeus, a, um*  ¶ Mod. Gr. υπεριώδ η ς.

102 vision, eyesight  ► oculorum acies  ¶ PLAUT.  Lucr.  ► acies, ei f. ( CAES.  CIC..  ► vîsus, ûs m.

102 vision:  my eyesight is going bad, my vision is deteriorating  visus mihi destituit  ¶ Petrarch 2.  ► visus mihi deficit  ¶ Est. I. 671.

102 vision:  sharpen the eyesight  ► vîsum acuere ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 487.

102 vision: poor vision, bad eyesight  ► videndi imbecillitas  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 322.  ► dêbilis visûs acies  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 122.

103

103    COLOR

103 /color (used as adj., as in "color picture"), in color  ► vîvis colôribus pictus (v. depictus v. expressus v. adumbrâtus)  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxvi: "Mentzelii Flora Iaponica ... plantis coloribus vivis depictis."  1794 RUIZ xi: "Earum [scil. plantarum] imagines vivis coloribus expressas in navim 'El Buen Consejo' in Hispaniam deferendas imposuimus."  ► nâtîvis colôribus pictus (v. depictus v. expressus v. adumbrâtus)  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xvii: "ad plantarum figuras aeri incidendas nativisque coloribus adumbrandas."  \ colôribus pictus (v. depictus v. expressus v. adumbrâtus)  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 75, of artistic representations of Mary Magdelene washing Jesus' feet: "Complures ... eam mulieris actionem repraesentare et sine coloribus et cum coloribus sunt conati, quo factum est ut eius modi figura tam solis typis quam etiam coloribus expressa in varios orbis locos sit divulgata."

103 /colorless  ► colôris expers  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 15.  ► incolor, ôris  ¶ Gloss.

103 /dark, deep (of color)  ► saturâtus, a, um  ¶ PLIN. 21, 46.  1571 MATTIOLI 324: "Alii [flores] saturatâ purpurâ nitent."   ► austêrus, a, um  ¶ PLIN. 35, 30: "Sunt autem colores austeri aut floridi."  |  adv.  (with color adjective)  ► saturâtê  ► intensê  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 12, describing human gums: "intense rubicundus color."  1811 PALLAS 17: "corpus supra intense fulvum," of tiger.  Pharm. Austr. 5: "Colorem intense rubrum induit."

103 /dark: light, pale  adv.  (with color adjective)  exolêtê (1811 PALLAS 53: "sunt autem aestate omnes exolêtê fusci."  |  a light color  color dilûtus (1571 MATTIOLI 128, in description of lemons; "citri faciem referentia, atque etiam colore magis dilûto."  |  light gray  pallentis cinerii coloris (Bauhin I. 421)

103 /examples of mixed color words:  blackish-gray  colore ex cinereo nigricante 1843 TRAPPEN 55)

103 blackish  ► nigricans, ntis  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 16.

103 brown  ► castaneus, a, um  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 354: "coloris castanei."  ► brûnus, a, um+  ¶ Latham.  Ducange.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 333 et passim.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 48: "Ibi sunt viri pulchri mulieresque pulchrae, coloris tamen bruni."

103 crimson (adj.), deep red, slightly blue-tinged red  ► coccineus, a, um  ¶ Petr.  Mart.  ► coccinus, a, um  ¶ Petr.  Mart.  ► carmesinus, a, um+  ¶ Ducange: "CARMESINUS, Color ostrinus, pupureus, chermisi Italia, cramoisi nostris; a kermes, voce Arabicâ, quae vermiculum sonat qui gignitur in baccis cocci, ex quorum liquore panni coccino seu purpureo colore tingi solent."  ► vermiculâtus, a, um+  ¶ Ducange.  ► vermilius, a, um+  ¶ Ducange s.v. vermiculus, quoting a medieval chronicle: "Apparuit quaedam crux rubea vel vermilia in castro dicto Spello." c.1300 MARCO POLO A 449, of a magnificent ruby owned by the king of Ceylon: "Ipse est lucidior res de mundo et est vermilius sicut ignis."

103 crimson (subst.), coloring agent or dye traditionally produced from the insect Kermes vermilio  ► coccum, i n.  ¶ Hor.  Mart.  ► vermiculus, i m.  ¶ Vulg. Ex. 35, 26. Ducange: "VERMICULUS, VERMICULUM ... Papias: 'Vermiculum, rubrum sive coccineum; est enim vericulus ex silvestribus frondibus, in quo lana tingitur.'"

103 gray, grey  ► cinereus, a, um  ¶ Col.  PLIN.  1843 TRAPPEN 55.  ► râvus, a, um  ¶ CIC.  HOR.  PLIN.   ► griseus, a, um+  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 65; 2, 27.  1846 GROSSE 7. 1811 PALLAS 18.  ► incânus, a, um  ¶ Verg. G. 3, 311, of mint.  1571 MATTIOLI 487, of rosemary.

103 indigo (subst.), coloring agent or dye obtained from the indigo plant (genus Indigofera, esp. Indigofera tinctoria L.)  ► indicum, i n.  ¶ PLIN. 33, 163: "Non pridem adportari et indicum coeptum est, cuius pretium denarii octo in libras. Ratio in picturâ ad incisuras, hoc est umbras dividendas ab lumine."  (Incisura here appears to be a technical term, equivalent tocommissura, for the boundaries between highlight and shadow by which chiaroscuro effects were created.  See Alexandre 9, 132, ad loc.).  PLIN. 35, 46: "Ab hoc [scil. purpurisso] maxime auctoritas indico. Ex Indiâ venit, harundinum spumae adhaerescente limo. Cum cernatur, nigrum, at in diluendo mixturam purpurae caeruleique mirabilem reddit."  1832 ALEXANDRE 9, 310 (note of xxx on Plin. 35, 46): " Ινδνκον , Dioscoridis loco laudato [5, 107], nobis est Indigofera tinctoria ... indigo, infectoribus nunc usitatissimus. Habitat in Indiâ orientali."  ► endicus, i+ m.  ¶ c.1300MARCO POLO A 466, of the Indian region of Gujarat: "Hic est endicus, piper, zenziber, et multae aliae species."  ► endici indecl.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 463, of the southwest coast of India: "Ibi est endici quo tinctores utuntur copia maxima."

103 orange  aureus, a, um (1571 MATTIOLI 129, of orange tree: "poma fert rotunda, aureo colore"; the orange tree has been called malum aureum, as well as aurantium)  ► flammeus, a, um, croceus, a, um (PERUGINI Dizion.)  ► luteus, a, um (PERUGINI Dizion.)  ► aurantinus, a, um*, aurantius, a, um* (PERUGINI Dizion.)

103 pastel  ►

103 pink  roseus, a, um (EGGER R.A. 73: "columnae ... e lapid granite ravi roseique coloris."  ► subruber, bra, brum (ERASMUS Coll. 199, of rosé wine; Pharm. Austr. 424)

103 red: vermilion (adj.), orange-red  ► minius, a, um  ¶ Apul. M. 4, 2: "Inter varias herbulas et laetissima virecta, fungentium rosarum minius color renidebat."  Apul. Flor. 12: "Enimvero cervicula eius [scil. psittaci] circulo minio velut aureâ torqui pari fulgoris circumactu cingitur et coronatur."

103 red: vermilion (subst.), coloring agent or dye traditionally produced from the mineral cinnabar  ► minium, i n.  ¶ Verg. B. 10, 26-27: "Pan deus Arcadiae vênit, quem vidimus ipsi  ¶ sanguineis ebuli bacis minioque rubentem."  Plin. 33, 117: "Cinnabari veteres quae etiam nunc vocant monochromata pingebant; pinxerunt et Ephesio minio, quod derelictum est, quia curatio magni operis erat."

103 ultramarine (adj.), deep blue, azure  ► cŷaneus, a, um  ¶ PLIN. 10, 89.  PRUD. Psych. 858.  1832 ALEXANDRE 9, 131, quoted above.  ► azûrinus, a, um+  ¶ Ducange.

103 ultramarine (subst.), coloring agent or pigment traditionally made from lapis lazuli  ► azûrum, i+ n.  ¶ Ducange.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 34, in description of Badakhshan: "In hac provinciâ in monte alio invenitur lasuli de quo fit azurum melius quod reperitur in mundo."  ► arzûrum, i+ n.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 358: "Invenerunt lapides unde fit arzurum multum bonum."  Ibid. 429: "Tota illa sala est picta ad aurum et ad arzurum cum multis pulchris historiis, et nihil potest videri in muris et tecto nisi aurum et arzurum."  ► ultramarînum, i* n.  ¶ 1832ALEXANDRE 9, 131 (on Plin. 33, 161): "Caeruleum. Obsolevit istud iam dudum, inque eius locum successit alterum simile, quod ex cyaneo lapide lazuli parant, vocantque ultramarinum,outremer."  Caeruleum was a blue dye of the ancients, of uncertain identity; in may in some cases have been ultramarine (Bostock 6, 141 n. 8, on Plin. 33, 161). 

103 woad, pastel, coloring agent or dye obtained from the woad plant (Isatis tinctoria L., which contains the same blue pigment as indigo)  ► glastum, i n.  ¶ PLIN. 22, 2: "Simili plantagini – glastum in Gallia vocatur – Britannorum coniuges nurûsque toto corpore oblitae quibusdam in sacris nudae incedunt, Aethiopum colorem imitantes."  DUCANGE: "GLASTUM, Gallis herbae genus, quo Britanni tingendis corporibus usi ... Guesdum vel pastellum nostri appellant; cuius inficiendis lanis maximus usus."  1832 ALEXANDRE 9, 310 (note of Dalechamps on Plin. 35, 46): "Indicum nihil aliud esse quam pigmentum confectum in Guzarate ex Indico glasto, Garcias auctor est, lib. 2, capt. 26.  Anil Turcae vocant, Indi gali, plerique nil." (The commentator seems to use the phrase Indicum glastum of indigo; anil and nil are words for indigo in various languages.)  Ibid. (note of Hardouin on same passage): "Eius [scil. indici] vice paratur ex arte germinum: alterum [scil. pigmenti genus] ex isati, seu glasto, molâ maceratâ, formatâque in panes ... alterum ex simili herbâ quam indigo vocant."  ► gua(i)(s)da, ae+ f. (also ga-, g(u)e-, wa-, we-, -d(i)um, etc.)  ¶ LATHAM.  NIERMEYER.  DUCANGE: "GUAISDIUM, Glastum Plinio, quo infectores lanarum utuntur, nostris guède, Picardis waide" (giving many other variant spellings). ► pastellum, i+ n.  ¶ DUCANGE: "PASTELLUM, Herbae genus, nostris pastel, quâ infectores lanarum utuntur, ab effigie pastillorum, in quam glomerantur eius cineres, sic dicta; aliis quippeguesdium vel guesdum nuncupatur; quae vitrum Latinis, Graecis í σατις  dicitur"; citing 14th-c. sources.  Latham citing 16th-c. source.   ►► EL: guède, pastel des teinturiers; guasto, yerba pastel; guado; Waid.

103 yellow  ► flavus, a, um  ¶  ► croceus, a, um  ¶ Ducange quoting letter of King of England, 1277, requiring Jews to wear a yellow emblem on their clothing: "Unus quisque eorum ... in superiori vestimento suo quoddam signam deferat ad modum duarum tabularum de feltro croceo."  1652 TURS. 256: "Iudaei ... croceis pileis insignes," of the yellow caps Jews were required to wear)

103 yellowish  ► flavescens, ntis  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 14.

106

106    HEAR

106 earplug  auris obturamentum (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 303: "aures habet gossipio oburatas")

106 hearing aid   ►► cf. tubus acûsticus (Kircher)  |  cf. specillum auricularium (CELS. 7, 26, 1)

106 hearing impaired, hard of hearing  ► surdaster, tra, trum  ¶ Cic.

106 hearing impairment, hardness of hearing  ► audîtûs gravitas  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 42.

106 listen eagerly, hang onto (someone's) every word  auribus arrectis (aliquem) audire, avidissimas aures (alicui) praebere 1843 TRAPPEN 24)

106 noisy  ► clamôsus, a, um  ► strepens, ntis  ► obstrepens, ntis  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ ii  ► fragôsus, a, um  ¶ Verg.  Plin.  Amm.  ► obstreperus, a, um  ¶ Apul.

106 overhear, eavesdrop  ► subauscultare (CIC. Top. 75: "ea locutus est bonis viris subauscultantibus pariete interposito, quibus patefactis ... iure damnatus est."  ► auscultare (PLAUT. Merc. 2, 4, 9: "omnia istaec auscultavi ab ostio."  ► sermoni (alicuius) auceps esse (PLAUT. Mil. 4, 1, 9: "circumspice dum, ne quis nostro hic auceps sermoni siet"; cf. PLAUT. Stich. 1, 2, 45: "numquis hic est alienus nostris dictis auceps auribus."  ► aucupium auribus facere (PLAUT. Mil. 4, 1)  ►sermones custôdire  ¶ Tac. A. 2, 52, where K. Wellesley translates, "They spied on their conversation,"

106 read lips

106 soundproof  ► sonis impervius (cf. airtight and cite)  |  cf. PLIN. Ep. 2, 17, 22: "tam alti abditique secreti illa ratio, quod interiacens andron parietem cubiculi hortique distinguit atque ita omnem sonum mediâ inanitate consumit"

106 tinnitus, ringing (or whistling or humming) in the ears  ► susurrus aurium (1846 GROSSE 9, in list of effect of hashish use)

107

107    ODOR

107 bad breath, halitosis  ► animae gravitas  ¶ PLIN. 20, 91.  ► ôris graveolentia  ¶ PLIN. 22, 88.  ► anima foetida  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 42.  ► anima foetens  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 152, of nutmeg fruit: "Commansae oris suavitatem commendant, et foetentis animae virus abolent."  |  he has bad breath  ► ôs ei olet  ¶ Mart. 12, 87: "Pediconibus os olere dicis."  Dig. 21, 1, 12, 4: "Is cui os oleat an sanus sit quaesitum est; Trebatius ait non esse morbosum os alicui olere, veluti hircosum, strabonem, hoc enim ex illuvie oris accidere solere."

107 bad breath: freshen the breath  ôris halitum commendare (1571 MATTIOLI 487, of rosemary)  ► ôris halitum iucundiôrem facere (PLIN. 20, 186, of anise: "oris halitum iucundiorem facit fetoremque tollit manducatum."  ► ôris suâvitâtem commendare (1571 MATTIOLI 152)  ► anhêlitum commendare (1571 MATTIOLI 323)

107 body odor: having body odor  ► hircôsus, a, um (Plaut.; Pers.; Mart. 10, 98, 10: hircosus subulcus; Mart. 12, 59, 4-5: "te pilosus ¶ hircoso premit osculo colonus"; Dig. 21, 1, 12, 4: "Trebatius ait non esse morbosum os alicui olere, veluti hircosum, strabonem")

107 body odor: underarm odor  ► alarum graveolentia (PLIN. 22, 87)

107 incense  ► suffîmentum, i n. (CIC.; PLIN.)  ► suffîmen, inis n. (Ov.; 1843 TRAPPEN 91: "de suffimine ex coffeae seminibus."  ► odor, ôris m. (Plaut.; Cic.; Hor. C. 3, 18, 7: "ara  ¶ fumat odore."  ► tûs, tûris n. (often used specifically of frankincens) (CIC.; Verg.; Ov.; PLIN.)  |  burn incense, fumigate  ► suffîre (Verg. G. 4, 241: "suffire thymo"; Col. 12, 18, 3: "cella quoque vinaria ... bonis odoribus suffienda, ne quem redoleat foetorem."  ► vapôrare (Verg. A. 11, 481: "templum ture vaporant"; Stat.)  ► fûmigare (Varr.; Col.)  ► odôres incendere (Plaut. Men. 353: "sternite lectos, incendite odores"; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 78: "ture, odoribus incensis."  | burning of incense, fumigation  ► suffîtus, ûs m. (PLIN.; ERASMUS Coll. 158: "suffitum aliquem facito purgando aëri."  ► fûmigâtio, ônis f. (Cael. Aur.; 1843 TRAPPEN 82, of medicinal use of fumes from coffee beans)

107 incense burner, censer, thurible  tûribulum, i n. (Cic.; Liv.)

107 perfume store  taberna unguentâria (SEN.; SUET.)

107 perfume, cologne  \\ odôrâmentum, i n. \ Col.  \ PLIN.   \\ odôres, um m. pl. (used also of incense, air-fresheners, etc.)  \ Virg.  \ Hor.  \\ oleum odôrâtum  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 36.  ►unguentum, i n. \ CIC.  \ HOR.  \ PLIN. N.H.  \\ unguentum odôriferum  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 37.  \\ unguentum odôribus condîtum  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 35, on the ancients' use of perfumes after exercise: "cum post exercitationes et post balnea infinita prope variorum odoribus conditorum unguentorum genera tradantur adhibita."

107 smell  v.i.  (give off an odor)  olêre  ► odôrem mittere  |  it smells good  bene olet ( Cic. Att. 2, 1, 1)  |  it smells bad  male olet  ► foetet  |  it smells like saffron  crocum olet (Cic. de Or. 3, 25, 99)

107 smell  v.t.  (perceive an odor, without or without intent)  olfacere  ► odôrem percipere 1843 TRAPPEN 92: "qui nauseâ molestentur quoties coffeae odorem percipiant."  |  (to purposely inhale an odor, sniff at)  odôrari (Plaut. Mil. 268: "ibo odorans quasi canis venaticus")

107 smell: foul-smelling, smelly, reeking, stinking, rank  grave olens  ► foetidus, a, um

107 substances: ambergris  ► ambra, ae+ f.  ¶ DUCANGE, also giving forms ambar and ambre, and providing this explanation (s.v. ambre): "Idem quod ambar, vel succinum et electrum, Gallisambre. In hoc autem distinguuntur ambar and succinum, quod ambar bituminis genus sit oceani orientalis proprium, cinerei aut nigri coloris, in litus maris eiectum, quod aeri expositum durescit, et odorem spirat suavem; succinum vero sit aliud bitumen lapidescens, flavum aut album, ex tritu vel ab igne fragrans, quod in sinu Codano reperitur."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 468: "Hic est copia de ambrâ pulchrâ et bonâ, quia in illo mari sunt cete grandia."  ► ambrum, i+ n.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 469, referring (probably) to Madagascar: "Ibi est ambri copia magna, quia in mari illo capodogli [sperm whales] et cete grandia capiuntur saepe."  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 37 (in a passage parallel to that quoted above for ambra): "In hoc mari est ambri copia magno, et ibi cete multa et grandia capiuntur." 

11

11    RECORD

11 amplifier

11 cassette  capsella magnêtophônica* (EGGER S.L. 52)

11 cassette deck, tape deck, cassette tape player

11 CD player

11 CD, compact disc  discus capacior, discus mûsicus

11 CD: record, album, vinyl disk

11 CD: single

11 DVD   ? (capācior) disculus cinēsiopticus 11 digital audio player, mp3 player, iPod

11 feedback (recording, radio)

11 headphone  (large, surrounding ears)  concha acûstica (v. auditiva)  |  (small: earphone, earbud)

11 megaphone  ►► megaphônium, EGGER D.L. 27

11 microphone  microphônum, i* n., apparatus micriphônicus* (EGGER S.L. 44)

11 play (a piece of music or other recording on a stereo, computer, etc.), show or project (a film, slide, clip, image, etc.)  ► repraesentare  ¶ Cf. CURT. 3, 10, 7, summarizing a battle-eve speech of Alexander: "Philippus pater invocabatur, domitaeque nuper Boeotiae et urbis in eâ nobilissimae ad solum dirutae species repraesentabatur animis" (Loeb trans.: "presented to their minds a picture").  Cf. QUINT. 6, 2, 29: "Quas  φαντασ í ας  Graeci vocant, nos sane visiones appellemus, per quas imagines rerum absentium ita repraesentantur animo ut eas cernere oculis ac praesentes habere videamur."  Cf. PLIN. 7, 89, in a list of examples of prodigious memory ability: "Charmadas ... quae quis exegerat volumina in bibliothecis legentis modo repraesentavit" ("recited from memory as if reading the book").

11 play: instant replay  repentîna repraesentatio

11 record, tape  vb.  imprimere (EGGER S.L. 52: "capsellam magnetophonicam inveniri in qua vos Emmanuelae esset impressa."  ► incîdere, soni imaginem excipere

11 recording studio  ► phônographêum, i* n.  ¶ / Cf. Anc. Gr.  ζωγρφειον  (Plut.), of a painter's studio.

11 speaker (stereo speaker, loudspeaker)  êchêum, i (*) n. (VITR. 1, 1, 9 and 5, 5, 2 and 5, 5, 7 of metal sounding-plates used to amplify sound in theater; see CALLEBAT Dict. 99; in modern sense: Lev.; HELFER)  ► megalo­phô­num, i* n. (LRL; the adjective  μεγαλοφωνος , loud-sounding, is ancient Greek; cf. Mod. Gr.  μεγαφωνο , loudspeaker)  ►► LS: "êchêa, ôrum, n., vessels to increase the sound of the actors' voices in theatre, sounding-vessels, VITR. 5, 5, 2 (1, 1, 9 written as Greek)."  CALLEBAT Dict. 99: "caisse d'un instrument de musique; traduit par vasa aerea, il désigne les 'vases résonateurs.'"  HILGERS 177: echea are vasa aerea placed in theater for amplification of sound.  ||  VITR. 1, 1, 9: "Item theatris vasa area ... quae Gracei echeiaappellant, ad symphonias musicas sive concentûs componuntur ... uti vox scaenici ... aucta cum incremento clarior et suavior ad spectatorum perveniat aures."  VITR. 5, 5, 7: "Cum autem ex solidis rebus theatra constituuntur, id est ex structura caementorum, lapide, marmore, quae sonare non possunt, tunc echeis hae rationes sunt explicandae.  VITR. 5, 5, 8: "Multi etiam sollertes architecti, qui in oppidis non magnis theatra constituerunt, propter inopiam fictilibus doliis ita sonantibus electis hac ratiocinatione compositis perfecerunt utilissimos effectus."

11 speaker: woofer, tweeter

11 stereo  (concrete: a stereo set, sound system)  stereophônum, i* n.;   (abstract: stereo sound)  sterephônia, ae* f., diphônia, ae* f.

11 stereo: quadraphonic sound, surround sound  amphiphônia, ae* f.

11 volume  (sound)  sonus, i m., vocis quantitas (QUINT. 11, 3, 14)  |  turn up the volume  sonum augere, sonum intendere

11 walkman, mp3-player, iPod  ►► Fr. balladeur

12

12    PHOTOGRAPHY, OPTICS

12 camera  (for still pictures)  machinula photographica (EGGER D.L. 49)  ► instrumentum photographicum (EGGER S.L. 85)

12 cameraman  ►► rei cinematograhicae artifex (EGGER S.L. 101)

12 focal point, focus (in optics)  ► focus, i (*) m.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 138, using the term metaphorically to describe the seat or central point of inflammation in the body: "loco ab irritationis foco paululum remotiore."  ►► OED s.v. focus: " The Lat. word was first used in sense 1 [geom.] by Kepler (Astron. pars optica iv. 4, written in 1604); his reason for the choice of the name is not stated, but it is conjectured that the optical sense 2, ‘burning point of a lens or mirror’ (which is easily derived from the lit. sense) must have been already in existence; this would account for Kepler's use, as the ‘burning point’ or ‘focus’ of a parabolic mirror is situate at the geometrical ‘focus’ of its curvature."

12 photograph   subst.  ► imago phôtographica*  ¶ Johannes van Vloten, ed., Ad Benedicti de Spinoza opera quae supersunt omnia supplementum ... cum philosophi chirographo ejusque imagine photographica, ex originali hospitis H. van der Spijck (Amsterdam, 1862).  ► phôtographia, ae* f.  ¶ For the concrete use of photographia, cf. Anc. Gr.  χρονογραφια (chronicle).  ► phôtographêma, atis* n.  ¶  ► tabula phôtotypa*  ¶  Eugenius Oder, ed., Mulomedicina Chironis (Leipzig: Teubner, 1901), title page: "Adiecta est tabula phototypa."  Ibid. xix: "Indicibus autem ut recte utantur [lectores], velim perpendant quanta fides codicis Monacensis librario in universum habenda sit, cuius artem celerrime ex tabulâ phototypâ calci editionis adiectâ cognoscimus."

12 photograph (vi), take a photograph or picture of  ► (alicuius rei) imaginem luce imprimere  ¶ EGGER D.L. 25.  ► (aliquid) luce imprimere  ¶ EGGER S.L. 85.  ►photographice* reddere  ¶ EGGER D.L. 37: "Amoenitates iugorum Imai photographice reddiderunt."  ► imaginem photographiceexprimere  ¶ EGGER D.L. 49. 

12 photographer  ► photographus, i* m.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 25, 43.

12 photographer's studio  ► photographêum, i* n.  ¶ Cf. Anc. Gr.  ζωγρφειον  (Plut.), of a painter's studio.

12 photography  ► ars phôtographica*  ¶ John Henry Parker, Monumentorum urbis Romae arte photographicâ relatorum series amplissima ad ipsius urbis formam et historiam illustrandam maxime idonea (Roma, 1868). 

12 slide  subst.  (small transparency for projection)  imaguncula pellucida, imaguncula translucida (EGGER S.L. 57)

12 telephoto  adj.  telephotographicus* (EGGER D.L. 46)  |  telephoto lens  telelenticula, ae* f. (EGGER D.L. 37)

13

13    TELEPHONE

13 answering machine  machina responsoria

13 dial  subst.  orbis (v. discus) volubilis (v. rotatilis)

13 dial  vb.

13 receiver (telephone)  auscultabulum, i* n. (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

13 telegram  nuntius telegraphicus* (EGGER D.L. 20; EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► têlegraphêma, atis* n.

13 telemarketer

13 telephone  têlephônum, i* n. (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► instrumentum têlephônicum* (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  |  adj.  têlephônicus, a, um* (EGGER S.L. 22)  |  talk by telephone  têlephônicê* colloqui (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  |  the telephone is ringing  têlephônum tinnit (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

13 telephone booth  cellula têlephônica* (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

13 telephone line

13 telephone message  nuntius têlephônicus

13 telephone pole

13 voice mail 

14

14    RADIO

14 broadcast  per aetheris undas dimittere (v. emittere v. divulgare)  ►► per aetheris undas transmittere (EGGER S.L. 72).  L.S.: "dimitto ... litteras per omnes provincias, CAES. B. C. 3, 79, 4; with which cf.: nuntios per agros, id. B. G. 6, 31, 2: librum per totam Italiam, PLIN. Ep. 4, 7, 2: edicta per provincias, SUET. Galb. 10: certos per litora, Verg. A. 1, 577 et saep.: nuntios tota civitate Aeduorum, CAES. B. G. 7, 38, 9: nuntios in omnes partes, id. ib. 4, 19, 2 ; 4, 34, 5; cf. ib. 5, 49, 8."

14 radar  ►► radioëlectricum instrumentum detectorium (EGGER D.L. 53)  ► instrumentum detectorium (EGGER S.L. 35)

14 radio  (abstract)  radiophônia, ae* f.;  (concrete)  radiophônum*, instrumentum radiophônicum* (EGGER S.L. 27)  |  adj.  radiophônicus, a, um* (EGGER L.D.I. 126)

14 radio station  sedes radiophonica* (EGGER D.L. 8)  ► statio radiophonica* (EGGER D.L. 58, EGGER S.L. 72)

14 short wave 

14 tune in  ►► cf. Span. sintonizar

15

15    TELEVISION

15 anchor, newscaster  locutor televisificus* (EGGER S.L. 36)

15 antenna (television, radio)

15 cable television  têlevisio funiculâris+ (for funicularis, see LATHAM)  ►► HELFER: television capularis

15 color televsion  instrumentum têlevîsificum versicolor (EGGER L.D.I. 105)  ►► instrumentum televisificum coloratum (EGGER S.L. 15-16)

15 reception: good reception

15 satellite dish

15 screen (of television, computer)  album, i n. (EGGER S.L. 48)  ► quadrum (visorium)

15 television  (abstract)  têlevisio, onis* f., têleopsia, ae* f.;  (concrete)  instrumentum têlevisificum* (EGGER D.L. 46; EGGER L.D.I. 105)  ► scrinium têlevisificum* (EGGER S.L. 48)  ► instrumentum (v. scrinium) têleopticum*; tēleopsis, is/eōs* f.,  adj.  têlevîsificus, a, um* (EGGER L.D.I. 126)  ► têleopticus, a, um* (Mod. Gr.)  |  Americans watch too much television  nimii sunt Americani in televisione spectandâ

15 television: channel

15 television series  spectaculorum series (EGGER L.D.I. 105)  ►► teleorasis, is* f. (EGGER D.L. 21)

15 television station  statio têlevisifica* (EGGER D.L. 58)  ► statio têleoptica*

15 television: t ê leorāsis is f., tēlevīsiō ōnis f

15 video clip  ? segmentum cinêsiopticum*

16

16    COMPUTERS

16 computer  computatorium, i+ (Maigne: of place where computations are made)  ► instrumentum computatorium* (EGGER D.L. 39)  ► ? computorium+, ? computarium+, informaculum, i* n., ? logisterium* (electronicum*)  |  adj.  ? informacularis, e*, ? informaticus, a, um*  ►► computatrum, ordinatrum

16 digital  (opp. analog) 

16 handheld computer, palmtop, personal digital assistant, PDA, "Palm Pilot"  computarium* pugillare

16 home page  vestibulum, i n.

16 link, hyperlink

16 optical character recognition, OCR

16 rewritable CD  discus (capax) dêlêtilis (cf. membrana deletilis, 1540 VIVES Exer. 318, of ancient palimpsests)

16 scan  (document, card; medical)

16 scanner  (with computer; card-scanner)

16 scroll

16 search  perquisitio informatica* (v. verbalis)  |  search engine

16 voice recognition, speech recognition

16 wireless: cordless

16 wireless: wireless network, wireless access, wifi

1680  KIRCHER Physiologia

17

17    ENTERTAINMENT

17 amusement park

17 beauty pageant, Miss America, etc.

17 circus  ► ludi papilionarii* (m. pl.)  ¶ For papilionarius, cf. Ducange (pavillonarius).

17 clown, jester, comic, (stand-up) comedian, impersonator  ► ioculâtor, ôris m. (also minstrel, traveling entertainer)  ¶  ►► distinguenda haec: scurra, balatro, ioculator, ridicularius, sannio, ludius, mimus, comoedus, actor comicus

17 clown: court jester  môrio, ônis m. (ERASMUS)  ► scurra, ae f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 371)

17 disk jockey, DJ  ►

17 emcee, master of ceremonies  ► spectaculi magister  ¶ Cf. convivii magister (Varr., Apul.), of one appointed to supervise the festivities during a banquet.

17 entertainer, performer  ► âcroâma, atis n. \\ ioculâtor, ôris (+) m.  ¶ LLN, defining as "a. nar [fool]; sannio ... b. jongleur, minstreel; histrio, tibicen."  LLI, defining as "mimus, funambulus, praestigiator."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 409, using histrio and ioculator as synonyms: "Magnus Kaan ... dixit omnibus histrionibus quos habebat in suâ curâ quod volebat ut irent ad conquaestandum istam provinciam ... Ioculatores dixerunt quod volebant ire libenter."  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 13, of entertainment at Kublai Khan's court: "Terminato prandio ... per ioculatores et histriones et nigromanticos ioci et solacia magna fiunt coram rege et coram aliis qui in eius curâ comedunt."  The ioculator (cf. French jongleur, whence English juggler) may be a minstrel, jester, comedian, acrobat, juggler, etc.

17 entertainer: minstrel, bard, troubadour, trouvère  ► ioculâtor, ôris (+) m.  ► Cf. DANTE Vulg. El. 351: "cantionum inventores."

17 entertainer: minstrel: Goliard  ► goliardus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange.  ► vagus scholâris  ¶ Ducange s.v. goliardus, quoting a 13th-c. council of Trier: "Sacerdotes non permittant trutannos et alios vagos scholares aut goliardos contare versûs super Sanctus, Agnus Die in missis vel in divinis officiis, quia ex hoc ... scandalizantur homines audientes."

17 entertainment, shows  ► voluptates, um f. pl.  ► solacia, orum (+) n. pl.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 377, of entertainment at Kublai Khan's court: "Multi histriones veniunt et faciunt ibi multa et diversa solatia."  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 13 (in a passage parallel to the preceding one): "Terminato prandio surgunt citharoedi omnes et suaves faciunt melodias, et per ioculatores et histriones et nigromanticos ioci et solacia magna fiunt coram rege et coram aliis qui in eius curae comedunt." 

17 live: live concert, live broadcast, recorded live

17 magic (illusion), magic tricks, legerdemain, sleight-of-hand  ► praestîgiae, arum f. pl.  ¶ Plaut.  Cic.

17 magician, illusionist, prestidigitator  ► praestîgiâtor, ôris m.  ¶ Plaut.  Sen.

17 magician: escape artist

17 merry-go-round, carrousel

17 parade  pompa, ae (EGGER S.L. 49)

17 puppet

17 puppet: marionette  neurospastum, i n. (Gell.; 1843 TRAPPEN 20: "neurospastis delectari"; EGGER R.A. 90: "theatrum neurospastorum seu parvorum simulacrorum ligneorum, quae nervis agitantur")

17 roller-coaster

17 swing (set)  \\ oscillum, i n.  \ 1773 Hahn 34: "cum enim califae Errasbidi concubina in oscillo se iactasset vehementius."

17 vaudeville

17 ventriloquist  ► ventriloquus, i m.  ¶ TERT.  HIER.  1561 GENTIAN trans. 11th-c. BALSAMON, canon 65 conc. in Trullo (p. 741), on ecclesiastical denunciations of the occult arts (in which ventriloquism was traditionally included): "Ventriloqui ( εγγαστρίμυθοι ) autem aruspicesque dicuntur omnes qui Satanicâ incitatione afflati dicunt ea quae cognosci non possunt, ut critriae, athingani, pseudoprophetae, eremitae et alii."  1677 MAGRI s.v. engastrimyth.  1876 DUNGLISON 1096 s. v. engastrimyth.  ► engastrimythus, i* m.  ¶ 1677 MAGRI.  1876 DUNGLISON 1096 s. vv.engastrimyth and ventriloque.  Cf. Anc. Gr.  εγγαστρίμυθος .  ► gastriloquus, i* m. Cf.  ¶ 1876 DUNGLISON 1096 s. v. engastrimyth

17 ventriloquist: dummy

18

18    ART

18 art  pictûra et statuâria, artes visuales (f. pl.)  ► artes ad oculorum voluptatem tendentes (SEN. Ep. 88, 22: "ludicrae [artes] sunt quae ad voluptatem oculorum atque aurium tendunt."  ► artes voluptariae (f. pl.)  ► callitechnia, ae* f. (Anc. and Mod. Gr.)

18 artist  pingendi (v. scalpendi) artifex (cf. EGGER R.A. 78: "Ioannes Laurentius Bernini ... filius Petri, qui et ispe statuarius et pingendi artifex fuit."  ► ? artifex, icis m. (EGGER D.L. 11)  ►callitechna, ae* m. (Anc. and Mod. Gr.)

18 artistic  callitechnicus, a, um* f. (Anc. and Mod. Gr.)

18 esthetics doctrina elegantiae, artis ratio, doctrina cognitionis sensibilis (Springhetti, Lexicon); aesthēticēs (Egger)

18 esthetic ad elegantiam pertinens, ad artis rationes seu ad aesthetices principia factum (Springhetti, Lexicon)

18 artist's studio  ► (pictôris) pergula  ¶ Plin. 35, 12, in an oft-quoted anecdote about the painter Apelles: "Idem perfecta opera proponebat in pergulâ transeuntibus atque, ipse post tabulam latens, vitia quae notarentur auscultabat, vulgum diligentiorem iudicem quam se praeferens."  Lact. Inst. 1, 22, quoting Lucilius: "Nam Lucilius eorum stultitiam, qui simulacra deos putant esse, deridet his versibus: 'Terricolas Lamias Fauni, quas Pompiliique  ¶ instituere Numae, tremit has; hic omnia ponit.  ¶ Ut pueri infantes credunt signa omnia ahena  ¶ vivere et esse homines, sic ista omnia ficta  ¶ vera putant; credunt signis cor inesse in ahenis.  ¶ Pergula pictorum; veri nihil; omnia ficta.'"  ► zôgraphêum, i n.  ¶ Cf. Anc. Gr.  ζωγρφειον  (Plut.).   ►► Smith: "PERGULA, appears to have been a kind of booth or small house, which afforded scarcely any protection except by its roof, so that those who passed by could easily look into it. It served both as a workshop (Dig. 5, 1, 19) and a stall where things were exhibited for sale. We find, for instance, that painters exhibited their works in a pergula that they might be seen by those who passed by (Lucil. ap. Lactant. 1, 22), and Apelles is said to have concealed himself in his pergula behind his pictures that he might overhear the remarks of those who looked at them (Plin. H. N. 36, 12). Such places were occupied by persons, who, either by working or sitting in them, wished to attract the attention of the public (Salmas. ad Script. Hist. Aug. pp. 458, 459). Hence we find them inhabited by poor philosophers and grammarians who gave instruction and wished to attract notice in order to obtain pupils (Suet. Aug. 94, de Illustr. Grammat. 18; Flav. Vopisc. Saturnin. 10; Juven. 11, 137). It should be observed that scholars do not agree as to the real meaning of pergula: Scaliger (ad Plaut. Pseud. I.2.79) describes it as a part of a house built out into the street, as in some old houses of modern times; Ernesti (ad Suet. Aug. 94) thinks that a pergula is a little room in the upper part of a house which was occasionally used by poor philosophers as an observatory. But neither of these two definitions is so applicable to all the passages in which the word occurs as that which we have proposed."

18 chiaroscuro  luminis et umbrae dispositio (cf. PLIN. 35, 29: "se ars [picturae] ipsa distinxit et invenit lumen atque umbras, differentiâ colorum alternâ vice sese excitante."  ► umbrae lucisque mixtio (v. compositio) (LRL)

18 connoisseur  (in aliqua re v. alicuius rei) intelligens (CIC. Verr. 2, 4, 4: "signa pulcherrima quae non modo istum hominem, ingeniosum atque intelligentem, verum etiam quemvis nostrum, quos iste idiotas appellat, delectare possent"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 393: "periti emptores, et picturae intelligentes," "art connoisseurs")

18 enamel  encaustum, i n. (DUCANGE s.v. smaltum in def.; Aldrovandi 1: "qui gemmatum annulum fabricaturus, ex auro obrizo et infecto primitus circulum format, deinde encausto illum exornat";COLES; SMITH; BRUN)  ► smaltum, i+ n. (DUCANGE, quoting ML source: "cantharam auream unam cum pretiosis margaritis et gemmis ac smalto"; COLES; DECAHORS; GOELZER citing Gloss. Pap.)  ► crusta vitrea (GOELZER; BADELLINO)  ►► For the ancients encaustum and encausticum referred to encaustic painting, by which heated, colored wax was applied to a surface – a sort of "enameling" in the broadest sense of the word.  DUCANGE: "Smaltum, Encaustum, liquati coloratique metalli pigmentum, Italis smalto."  Fusilis argilla (GOELZER).

18 enameled  encausto distinctus (DUCANGE s.v. smaltum in def.)  ► encausto inustus (COLES)  ► encausto pictus (COLES; BRUN)  ► encausto crustâtus, encaustus, a, um (MART.; COLES) ► smaltâtus, a, um+ (DUCANGE, quoting ML source: "offerre fecit calicem unum argenteum ... mirifice deauratum et smaltatum."  ► smaltinus, a, um+ (DECAHORS; SMITH; GOELZER citing Anast. Bibl.)

18 enameling (art or practice)  ars encaustica (Aldrovandi 1)  ► encausticê, ês (or a, ae) f. (PLIN.; COLES) 

18 enameller  encaustês (or a)  ► ae* m. (COLES; BRUN)

18 forms: bust (sculpture)  effigies dimidiata (EGGER R.A. 24)  ► facies marmorea (v. e gypso expresso) (CIC. cited by GOELZER s.v. buste)  ► thôrax, âcis m. (Hist. Aug. Claud. 3)  ► ? herma, ae (*)  ► superioris corporis effigies (v. signum)

18 forms: drawing (concretely: a drawing)  dêlîneâtio, ônis f. (TERT.)  |  (act or art of drawing)  graphicê, ês f. (PLIN.; RABELAIS 957)

18 forms: drawing: charcoal (for drawing)  carbo, ônis m. (1571 MATTIOLI 487, of rosemary: "parantur e virgis ... carbones ad picturas delineandas."  ► graphium carbôneum (v. ex carbône)

18 forms: drawing: charcoal drawing  delineatio (v. adumbratio) carbônâria (v. carbône facta)

18 forms: fresco  pictura udo inducta (EGGER S.L. 68)  ► imago udo illita (EGGER R.A. 48)

18 forms: illuminated manuscript  liber miniâtus (1540 VIVES Exer. 336: "libri ipsi plerique omnes membranacei et variis coloribus miniati")

18 forms: illumination, miniature, small image in manuscript  minuta pictura (EGGER R.A. 61)  ► miniâtûra, ae+ (OED s.v. miniature, citing 15th-century source; BARTAL)

18 forms: illuminator of manuscrpts, miniaturist, miniator  minutarum picturarum effector (EGGER R.A. 61)  ► miniâtor, ôris+ (LATHAM; Maigne)

18 forms: landscape  (as subject of landscape painting)  topia, orum n. pl. (VITR.)

18 forms: mosaic  ► opus tessellatum  ¶ EGGER R.A. 52, 119.  ► asarôtum, i n.  ¶ STAT.  ¶ PLIN.   ► mûsîvum, i n.  ¶ AUG. CivDei, 16, 8: "musivo picta sunt."  ¶ EGGER R.A. 57, 52, quoting 19th-century inscription in Lateran basilica: "Vetus musivum ad antiquum exemplum restitui ... iussit."  ►► opus musivum ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 109.  [[EB (s.v. "mosaic"): "miniature mosaic work (called opus vermiculatum, meaning 'wormlike work' because of the close-set, undulating rows of small tesserae)."]]

18 forms: mosaic: floor mosaic  ► lithostrôtum, i n.  ¶ Plin. 36, 184: "Pavimenta originem apud Graecos habent elaborata arte picturae ratione, donec lithostrota expulere eam."  ¶ Cf. 5th c.PS. PROSP. Prom. 3, 38, 44 (PL 51, 834A): "Apud Africam Carthagini Caelestis inesse ferebatur templum nimis amplum, omnium deorum suorum aedibus vallatum. Cuius platea lithostrata, pavimento ac pretiosis columnis et moenibus decorata, prope in duobus fere millibus passuum protendebatur."    ► pavimentum lithostrôtum  ¶ VARR. R. R. 3, 1, 10.  ► pavimentum tessâllatum  ¶ SUET. Caes. 46  

18 forms: mural  pictûra parietâria (cf. pictor parietarius, Edict. Diocl. p. 19)

18 forms: mural-painter  pictor parietârius (Edict. Diocl.)

18 forms: portrait  imâgo, inis f. (alicuius hominis)  ► imâgo picta (GOELZER citing PLIN.)  |  Holbein specialized in portraits  Holbein in primis hominum imagines pingebat   ►► Imago has often in Latin the meaning "portrait, artistic representation of a person"; the adjective "picta" may be added to specify that a portrait is a painting (rather than a drawing, photograph, statue).

18 forms: relief  (work executed in relief, objected carved in relief)  imago ectypa (EGGER R.A. 24: "sarcophagi ectypis imaginibus eximie sculptis"; cf. SEN. Ben. 3, 26: "imaginem Caesaris habens ectypâ et eminente gemmâ," of a gem carved in relief; cf. also EGGER R.A. 52: "aenea tabula ectypa ... tegit sepulcrum."  ► scalptura ectypa (PLIN.)  ► ectypa, orum n. pl. (PLIN.; EGGER S.L. 21)  ► anaglypta, orum n. pl. (PLIN. 33, 139)  ► typus, i m., toreuma, atis n., opus (v. vas v. aurum v. argentum) caelatum  |  low relief, bas-relief  imago (v. scalptura v. figura v. effigies) parum eminens (v. extans v. prominens)  ► prostypum (PLIN. N.H. 35, 152)  |  high-relief, haut-relief  imago (v. scalptura v. figura v. effigies) alte eminens (v. extans v. prominens)  ►► Toreuma and opus caelatum are used of relief work carved or engraved in metal or stone; typus appears to apply especially to relief work modeled or molded in clay.  According to Lidell and Scott, prostypum refers to bas-relief, ectypus to haut-relief; but given the confusion in other dictionaries on precisely how these Latin terms correspond to the notions of high and low relief, it will be clearest to use phrases such as "parum eminens," "alte eminens."

18 forms: silhouette  ? umbrae figura (v. effigies)  ►► LRL: extrema lineamenta, imago obliqua, figura lineis circumducta.  HELFER, SCHELLER: adumbratio, sciagraphia.  Lev.: pictura monogramma.  SMITH: obliqua imago.  GOELZER: adumbratio, imago adumbrata.  Noel: umbra ex facie alicuius.  Mod. Gr.:  περιγραμμα

18 forms: silhouette: profile  (image from the side)  imago obliqua (PLIN. 35, 90: "pinxit et Antigoni regis imaginem altero lumine orbati primus excogitata ratione vitia condendi, obliquam namque fecit."  |  (summary account of process, activity, category)  adumbratio, onis f., delineatio, onis f.;  (bigraphical sketch)  adumbratio (alicuius) vitae, adumbrata vita (alicuius)

18 forms: stained-glass window  fenestra depicta (1540 VIVES Exer. 332: "quae fenestrae speculares, quam scite depictae! ... quaenam est historia vitrearum?."  ► vitrum imaginibus pictum (cf.1652 TURS. 380, describing destruction of religious images ordered by English parliament in 1641: "ut pluribus in locis vitrea claustra imaginibus picta lacerarentur."  ► vitrum pictûrâtum

18 forms: still life   ►► EL: nature morte; natura morta, riposo; bodegón, naturaleza muerta; Stillleben;  νεκρή φύση

18 forms: tapestry  aulaeum, i n., aulaeum picturatum (ERASMUS)  ► pictura textilis (Lucr.; EGGER R.A. 141: "summa artificia Raphaelis Sanctii sunt propolam collocata, veluti decem picturae textiles, quarum ratione ab eo sunt descriptae quaeque in textrinis Belgicis sunt confectae."  ► peripetasma pictûrâtum  ►► aulaeum acu pictum (EGGER S.L. 67)  ||  Peripetasma: "tapisserie, tapis, tenture" (Gaffiot)  ► "voile ou tenture" (Bailly citing Jos.)  ► "hanging, curtain" (Souter)  ► "velum navis" (Maigne).

18 forms: watercolor imago aquatis coloribus picta (LRL)  ► hydatographia, ae* f. (LRL)

18 forms: woodcut  < xylographia, ae f.  < imâgo xylographica  < imâgo ligno incîsa  < figûra ligno insculpta ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v-vi, on the celebrated woodcuts illustrating Mercuriale's De arte gymnastica: "Ad figuras quidem ipsas quod attinet, non alias hîc tibi et publico offerimus quam quas insignis antiquiarius Pyrrhus Ligorius Mercuriali obtulit, maximorum curâ artificum designatas, et ... non sine maximis impensis ligno insculptas."

18 forms: woodcut: engraving, print (from metal plate), plate (in book), copperplate  ► tabula aeri incîsa  ¶ Schlegel, etc.  Cf. 1794 RUIZ xvii: "ad plantarum figuras aeri incidendas nativisque coloribus adumbrandas."  ► effigies aere expressa  ¶ 1754 REISKE ann. PORPHYROGENITUS vol. 2, p. 309.  ► îcon, îconis (*) f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ title page (corresponding to "lámina" ["copperplate"] in accompanying Spanish translation)  ►► scalptura (EGGER R.A. 142)

18 forms: woodcut: lithograph  lithographia, ae f., imago lithographica

18 gradation  (transition from one shade to another in painting)  harmogê, ês f., commisûra (v. transitus) colorum (PLIN. 35, 29: "appellarunt ... commissuras ... colorum et transitûs 'harmogen'")

18 icon (religious image, especially in Eastern Orthodox tradition)  ► sancta imâgo  ¶ 1652 TURS. 145, of an iconoclast Byzantine emperor: "sanctarum imaginum cultores indignis vexavit modis."

18 movements1: romanesque

18 movements2: gothic

18 movements3: baroque  adj.  barôcus, a, um* (EGGER L.D.I. 109: "laudant etiam frontem ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae ad artis barocae rationem affabre factam"; EGGER R.A. 27: "imago Christi de cruce detracti, quam Christophorus Roncalli ... barocâ mobilitate depinxit")

18 movements31: mannerist    mannerism

18 movements4: rococo

18 movements5: romantic  romanticus, a, um* (EGGER D.L. 42)  |  romanticism

18 movements6: realist    realism

18 movements61: surrealist    surrealism

18 movements65: naturalist    naturalism

18 movements7: impressionist    impressionism

18 movements71: pointillist

18 movements8: fauve    fauvism

18 movements82: cubist    cubism

18 movements84: dada, dadism

18 movements9: abstract expressionism

18 museum, cabinet of curiosities, Wunderkammer  mûsêum, i n. (1798 DESFONTAINES  title page: "in museo historiae naturalis Parisiensi"; 1843 TRAPPEN 28: "museum Wormianum";1811 PALLAS 16: Museum Academicum, of a university's collection of artworks, scientific specimens, etc.; EGGER S.L. 25: "Musaea Vaticana"; EGGER S.L. 39; EGGER S.L. 40: "sedes musaei disciplinarum naturalium."  ► gazophylacium, i n. (see Vincent below)  ► cimelia, orum n. pl. (1811 PALLAS 39: "exuviae lupi nigri asservabantur in cimeliis regiis Berolini."  ► cimelotheca, ae* f. (see Menestrier below)  ► compounds in -thêca (as "metallotheca," of a museum of metals; "dactyliotheca" of museum of jewelry, see Hebenstreit below)  ► theâtrum (with gen., as "naturae theatrum," natural history museum)  ► thesaurus, i m. (Seba [see below]: "rerum naturalium thesauru."  ► rariorum collectio 1843 TRAPPEN 28: "Quamdiu in rariorum collectionibus asservata manserint coffeae semina ... dicere non possum; reperi autem Bernardum Paludanum anno 1610 museum Wormianum ... iis donasse."  |  art museum  pinacothêca, ae f. (if containing chiefly paintings) (EGGER L.D.I. 109; EGGER R.A. 23, 140)  ►► Museum – properly, a shrine to the muses – referred in antiquity to a sort of university and research center (as at Alexandria)  |  since the Renaissance it has also referred to a scholar's study or office, as well as to a curiosity cabinet, Wunderkammer, or museum of any kind.  ||  From various sources:  First museum was perhaps that of Palazzo Medici, c. 1440, containing classical artifacts, precious metals, etc.  Early modern museums were private, but arranged as displays for visitors; called curiosity cabinet, Wunderkammer, Kunstkammer.  Examples: "cabinets" of 16th c. naturalists; antiquarium of Wittelsbach, Munich, 1568 (sculpture)  |  musaeum (or naturae theatrum) of Francesco Calzolari (Verona, 1622; see book title below)  |  museum of Olaus Worm (Leiden, 1655; see book title below)  |  museums of Ferrante Imperato (Venice, 1672)  ► Ferdinando Cespi (Bologna, 1677)  ► "Collegii Romani S.J. Musaeum" (Rome 1678, under Athanasius Kircher)  ||  Titles of books on early museums or Wunderkammer:  Oliva, Giovanni Battista, De reconditis et praecipuis collectaneis ab honestissimo et solertissimo Francisco Calceolario Veronensi in musaeo adservatis (Verona, 1593) [other authors: Aldrovandi, Ulisse, 1522-1605, Calzolari, Francesco, 1522-1609; title page note: "Ulyssis Aldrovandi testimonium peregrinarum rerum, quae in naturae theatro Francisci Calzolarii congregatae conspiciuntur," p. 79-81].  |  Ceruti, Benedetto and Andrea Chiocco, Musaeum Francisci Calceolarii junioris Veronensis a Benedicto Ceruto medico. inceptum, et ab Andrea Chiocco medico physico excellentissimi collegii luculenter descriptum et perfectum, in quo multa ad naturalem moralemque philosophiam spectantia, non pauca ad rem medicam pertinentia erudite proponuntur et explicantur, non sine magna rerum exoticarum supellectile, quae artifici plane manu in aes incisae studiosis exhibentur (Verona, 1622).  |  Worm, Ole, Museum Wormianum, seu historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quæ Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur (Leiden, 1655)  |  Menestrier, Claude-François, Symbolica Dianae Ephesiae statua a Claudio Menetreio ceimeliothecae Barberinae praefecto exposita (Roma, 1688)  |  Hebenstreit, Johann Ernst, Museum Richterianum continens fossilia animalia vegetabilia marina illustrata iconibus et commentariis; accedit de gemmis scalptis antiquis liber singularis (Leipzig 1742) [title page note: "Mvsei Richteriani dactyliotheca gemmas scalptas opere antiqvo plerasqve complexa"]  |  Seba,AlbertLocupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri accurata descriptio, et iconibus artificiosissimis expressio, per universam physices historiam; opus cui in hoc rerum genere nullum par exstitit, ex toto terrarum orbe collegit, digessit, descripsit, et depingendum curavit Albertus Seba (Amsterdam, 1734)  |  Vincent, Levin, Elenchus tabularum, pinacothecarum atque nonnullorum cimeliorum, in gazophylacio Levini Vincent; description abregée des planches, qui représentent les cabinets et quelques-unes des curiosités, contenues dans le théâtre des merveilles de la nature de Levin Vincent (Haarlem, 1719)  ||  Alios titulos librorum ad musea sive gazophylaica pertinentium vide in documento "musaea_list."

18 museum: exhibit, display  vb.  propalam collocare (CIC. de Or. 1, 161: "et tamquam in aliquam locupletem ac refertam domum venerim, non explicatâ veste neque proposito argento neque tabulis et signis propalam collocatis"; EGGER R.A. 141)  |  subst.  ? exhibitio, onis f. (EGGER S.L. 57)

18 museum: gallery (art)  pinacotêca, ae f. (EGGER L.D.I. 109)

18 ogive window (with pointed Gothic arch)  fenestra in acutum fastigata (EGGER R.A. 51)

18 painter  (artist)  pictor, ôris m. (CIC.; PLIN.)  |  (house painter)  dealbâtor, ôris m. (Cod. Just.)  ► pictor cubiclorum (1846 GROSSE  27)

18 painting  (concretely: a painting)  tabula picta, pictûra, ae f. (PLAUT.; CIC.; SEN.)  |  (art of painting)  pictûra, ae f.

18 painting tools: brush  pênicillus, i m.

18 painting tools: brush stroke, brush work

18 painting tools: easel  pluetus, i m. (“Pluteos appello, ista sustentacula, in quibus reponi tabellae solent, dum pinguntur.” Scheffer, p.89 Graphice, id est, de arte pingendi 1619) {Patricius Owens | 2014}

18 painting tools: paint  pigmentum, i n.

18 painting tools: pallet  orbis pictôrius

18 perspective:  representation in perspective  ► scênographia, ae f. (VITR. 1, 2, 2: "scenographia est frontis et laterum abscedentium adumbratio ad circinique centrum omnium linearum responsus."  ► pictûra scênographica* (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 332: "quae fenestrae speculares, quam scite depictae picturâ sciographicâ!" of stained glass windows; sciographia is a variant forscenographia in Vitruvius)  |  represented or drawn in perspective  scênographicus, a, um* (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 331: sciographicus)  ►► A passage in Vitruvius (7, 11) describes the development of a practice and theory of perspective representation in fifth-century Greece, and makes clear why such representation was associated with the term scenographia: "Agatharchus Athenis Aeschylo docente tragoediam scaenam fecit, et de ea commentarium reliquit.  Ex eo moniti Democritus et Anaxagoras de eadem re scripserunt, quemadmodum oporteat ad aciem oculorum radiorumque extentionem, certo loco centro constituto, lineas ratione naturali respondere, uti de certa re certae imagines aedificiorum in scaenarum picturis redderent speciem et, quae in directis planisque frontibus sint figurata, alia abscedentia, alia prominentia esse videantur."  Trans. Morgan: "Agatharcus, in Athens, when Aeschylus was bringing out a tragedy, painted a scene, and left a commentary about it.  This led Democritus and Anaxagoras to write on the same subject, showing how, given a centre in a definite place, the lines should naturally correspond with due regard to the point of sight and the divergence of the visual rays, so that by this deception a faithful representation of the appearance of buildings might be given in painted scenery, and so that, though all is drawn on a vertical flat facade, some parts may seem to be withdrawing into the background, and others to be standing out in front."  ||  Perspectiva.  LATHAM, OED: optics.  HOVEN: la perspective géométrique.

18 perspective: background  (part of a scene depicted as farther from viewer)  abscendentia, ium n. pl. (VITR. 7, 11: "uti ... alia abscedentia, alia prominentia esse videantur," of perspective painting, or scenographia)  |  (prior circumstances or experiences as relevant to a historical event, individual's current life, etc.)

18 perspective: foreground  prominentia, ium n. pl. (VITR. 7, 11: "uti ... alia abscedentia, alia prominentia esse videantur," of perspective painting, or scenographia)

18 plaque  (inscribed tablet)  tabula (v. tabella) inscripta

18 style (architectural)  architecturae genus (EGGER S.L. 10)  ► architectandi ratio (EGGER R.A. 48)  ► structûrae genus (EGGER R.A. 51, 102: "ecclesia ... Gothico structurae genere ... est exstructa")

18 work of art, artifact, handicraft  opus artificiôsum (CIC. N. D. 2, 55, 138; EGGER R.A. 66: "museum ... refertissimum antiquitatis artificiosis operibus."  ► artificiâtum, i+ n. (DANTE Vulg.El. 340)

182

182    THEATER

182 act  (in play, film)  vb.  partem agere, scenicum agere (EGGER S.L. 22)

182 actor  actor (scenicus v. cinematographicus*)  ► scenicus, i m., histrio, ônis m., artifex scenicus (CIC. Arch. 5, 10)

182 actress  scênica, ae f., actrix scênica (EGGER S.L. 37)  ► actrix (cinematographica*)

182 amphitheater (outdoor theater)  theatrum subdiâle (v. hypaethrum) (for adj. hypaethrus, see VITR.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 348: cenatio hypaethra, of an uncovered terrace for dining)  ► theâtrum Graecanicum

182 claque, hired or professional applauders (at theater, opera performances)  ► operae theâtrâlis  ¶ Tac. Ann. 1, 16: "Percennius quidam, dux olim theatralium operarum, dein gregarius miles, procax linguâ et miscere coetûs histrionali studio doctus."

182 decor (theater, opera)  apparatus scênicus (EGGER S.L. 39)

182 dénouement  catastrophê, ês f., exitus, ûs m. (1540 VIVES Exer. 364: "quis fuit convivii exitus tamquam fabulae?")

182 direct: produce (play)  fâbulam docêre (CIC. Brut. 72)  ► fabulam dare (Ter. Eun. 9; CIC. Brut. 73)

182 director (of play)  imperâtor histricus (PLAUT. Poen. 4)

182 farce, comic skit  mîmus, i m. (CIC.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 300: "facis tragoediam ex comoedia, seu mimo verius."  ►► The Roman mimus was a genre quite similar to that of farce as it developed in late medieval and early modern Europe – a short, generally crude comic work, featuring stock characters and a rudimentary plot often involving cuckoldry.

182 flop: be a flop, fall flat, not go over well (esp. of a play, speech, performance)  frigêre (CIC. Att. 1, 14, 1: "prima contio Pompei ... frigebat."  ► refrigescere (QUINT. 4, 3, 2: "ne ... oratio refrigescat")

182 flop: pan: the play was panned by the critics  fabula ad existimatores frigebat (CIC. Brut. 187: "quare tibicen Antigenidas dixerit discipulo sane frigenti ad populum, 'mihi cane et Musis'")

182 mime, pantomime  (person)  \\ chîronomos, i m. \ JUV.  ► gesticularius, i  \ AMM.  |  (art or practice)  \\ chîronomia, ae f.  \ QUINT. 1, 11, 17, of the art of gesturing in general.  \ Cf. Anc. Gr.  χειρονομία , "pantomimic movement" (Lidell-Scott).  \\ \\  Χειρόνομος  and related words evoke artful or virtuosic use of gesture generally (not only imitative motion).  See Juv. 5, 120-122, of a knife-whirling showman at a tacky banquet: "Structorem interea – ne qua indignatio desit – \ saltantem spectes et  χειρονομουντα volanti \ cultello."

182 play, drama  fâbula, ae f. (CIC.; HOR.)  ► fâbula scênica (Amm. 28, 1, 4)  ► fâbula theâtrâlis (Amm. 14, 6, 20)  ► drâma, atis n. (Aus. Ep. 18, 15; EGGER R.A. 39)

182 prompter  suggestor

182 prompter: teleprompter

182 prop  ► supellex scênica

182 scalp (tickets)  tesseras aucto pretio revendere, tesseras venditione furtivâ dare (EGGER S.L. 74: "tesserulae eius modi venditione furtivâ datae sunt pretio immensum aucto")

182 seat (at theater, stadium)  locus, i m.

182 stage  (raised platform for actors, speakers)  scêna, ae f., proscênium, i n., pulpita, orum n. pl., suggestus, ûs m. (EGGER S.L. 9)  |  (phase in a process)  stadium, i (*) n.

182 supernumerary, extra  (film or theater)  muta persôna (EGGER S.L. 101)

182 understudy  actor (v. scênicus v. histrio) subsidiarius

183

183    CINEMA

183 movie camera  ►► instrumentum cinematographicum* (EGGER S.L. 88)

183 movie studio  ► cinematographêum, i* n.  ¶ Cf. Anc. Gr.  ζωγρφειον  (Plut.), of a painter's studio.  ► cinesigraphêum, i* n.

183 movie theater, cinema  theatrum cinematographicum* (v. cinesigraphicum*) cinematographium, i n.* (Muench, 1941)   ►► Cinematographeum (EGGER D.L. 40) should refer to a place where movies are made, -graph- retaining its verbal force in accord with the norms governing such Greek compounds; typographeum, for example, is a place where books are printed, not where they are displayed or sold.

183 movie, film  \\ cinematographia, ae* f.  \\ fabula cinematographica*  ► spectaculum cinematographicum*  \ EGGER L.D.I. 105.  ► pellicula cinematographica* \ EGGER S.L. 69. ►► taeniola cinematographica*  \ EGGER D.L. 40.  \\ \\ Consider also cinetograph- (cf. kinetograph; Mod. Gr. κινητοσκόπιο), cinesigraph- (cf. Anc. Gr.  κινεσίφορος ).

183 movie, film, cinematographic  adj.  cinematographicus, a, um* (EGGER S.L. 22; EGGER R.A. 94)  ► cinesigraphicus, a, um*

183 Oscar Award  praemium Ansgarianum (EGGER S.L. 22)

183 preview (of film), film trailer  ? peliculae praelibatio (cf. DANTE Ep. 440: "ad expositionem litterae secundum quandam praelibationem accedendum est," in DANTE's introduction or "preview" to his own Divine Comedy)

183 star: movie star, football star, etc.

183 subtitle, caption, closed caption, dub

185

185    DANCE

185 /dance (subst.)  ► saltâtio, ônis f.  ► chorea, ae f.  ► ballâtio, ônis  ¶ Aug. Serm. 265, 4 (now ascribed to Caes. Arel.).

185 /dance (vb)  ► saltare  ► choreas ducere  ► ballare (esp. of licentious or frenetic dancing)  ¶ Aug. Serm. 265, 4 (now ascribed to Caes. Arel.): "Isti enim infelices et miseri, qui ballationes et saltationes ante ipsas basilicas sanctorum exercere ... pagani de ecclesia revertuntur, quia ista consuetudo ballandi de paganorum observatione remansit."  Aug. Serm. 266, 3 (now ascribed to Caes. Arel.): "Ille Christianus qualis est qui ... usque ad vomitum bibit et, postquam se inebriaverit, surgit velut phreneticus et insanus balare diabolico more, saltare, verba turpia et amatoria vel luxuriosa cantare?"  Ducange: "BALARE, BALLARE, Saltare, choreas ducere."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 405, of native witch-doctors: "Pulsant instrumenta et cantant et ballant, et quando ballaverunt aliquantulum, unus istorum magorum cadit in terram cum spumâ ad os et fit semivivus."  ||  On the connotation of ballare, see Paul Lejay, "Le rôle théologique de Césaire d'Arles," Revue d'histoire et de littérature religieuses 10 (1905), 481 (my trans.): "The terms balare and balatio (or rather ballareballatio) were, originally at least, associated with the cult of the Great Mother, and referred to the frantic dances of the Galli [the priests of Cybele]; cf. C.I.L., VII, 2265: 'Sodales ballatores Cybelae.'"  Many of Ducange's quotations for ballare are from ecclesiastical decrees prohibiting inappropriate dancing.

185 ballet  pantomîmus, i m., saltatoria fabula (LRL)

185 waltz saltātiō volūtābunda (Jena, 1803, p457)

185 minuet saltātiō gemina (Jena, 1803, p457)

185 waltz

19

19    MUSIC

19 accompany  (music)  (alicui) succinere

19 accompany: unaccompanied, solo (of instrument or voice)  assus, a, um (SERV. G. 2, 417: assae tibiae)

19 acoustic  (guitar, etc.)  anelectricus, a, um*

19 baton  virga symphôniaca, portisculus, i m. (Enn.; PLAUT.)  ►► Portisculus.  Gaffiot: "bâton avec lequel le chef des rameurs marquait le rhythme."  LS: "a truncheon or hammer with which the master of the rowers gave signals, and beat time to indicate the proper stroke."

19 beat (music, poetry)  ictus, ûs m. (HOR.; PLIN.)

19 chord (mus.: combination of tones sounded together)  consonantia, ae f.

19 compose  (music)  modos musicos facere (Ter.; EGGER S.L. 34)

19 composer  musicae compositor (cf. Cassiod. Hist. Eccl. 1, 2: melodiae compositor)  ► mûsûrgus, i* (Kirchner)

19 concert  concentus (mûsicus) (EGGER S.L. 34)  |  give a concert, perform a concert  concentum edere (EGGER S.L. 34)  ►► concentus polyphonicus (EGGER S.L. 99)

19 concert hall, symphony hall  odêum, i n. (VITR.; SUET.; TERT.; EGGER S.L. 34)

19 concert hall: opera house  ôdêum, i n., theâtrum mûsicum (EGGER L.D.I. 109)

19 conduct (orchestra), direct (chorus)  moderari (EGGER S.L. 99: "Karajan in Petriana Baslicia Romae concentum polyphonicum moderatur")

19 conductor (of orchestra), director (of chorus)  ► magister symphôniacus  ► mûsicês magister  ¶ EGGER S.L. 99.  ► moderator, ôris m.  ¶ LRL.

19 conductor: chorus director, choir director  ► magister chori canentium  ¶ Col. 12, 1.

19 ensembles: band  (musical group)  aenatores, um m. pl. (EGGER D.L. 15)  ► manus aeneatorum (EGGER S.L. 50)

19 ensembles: orchestra  (group of musicians performing together)  sympônia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 99: "fornices ac tholus ... vocibus ad symphoniam canentium resonuerunt."  ► symphoniaci, orum m. pl. (EGGER S.L. 99)  |  (parterre, main floor seating in auditorium or opera house)  ima cavea, orchêstra, ae f. (most appropriate for front part of main floor seating)

19 ensembles: orchestra member, musician in an orchestra  symphoniacus, i (EGGER S.L. 34)

19 ensembles: orchestra pit

19 ensembles1: solo  monôdia, ae f. (ISID. Orig. 6, 19, 6)  ► si(n)cinium, i n. (ISID. Orig. 6, 19, 6: "cum autem unus canit, Graece monodia, Latine sicinium dicitur")

19 ensembles1: soloist  monôdiârius, i* m., monôdiâria, ae f. (Inscr. Orell.)

19 ensembles2: duet  bicinium, i n. (ISID. Orig. 6, 19, 6: "cum vero duo canunt, bicinium appellatur")

19 ensembles3: trio  tricinium, i n. (Symm.)

19 ensembles4: quartet  quadricinium, i* n.

19 ensembles5: quintet  quinquecinium, i* n.

19 ensembles6: sextet  ? sescinium, i* n., ? hexôdia, ae* n.

19 ensembles7: septet  septicinium, i* n.

19 ensembles8: octet  octôcinium, i* n.

19 lyrics (words of song)  ► (cantici v. cantilênae) verba  |  Hammerstein wrote the lyrics, Rogers wrote the music  ► Hammerstein cantici verba scripsit, haec Rogers modis musicis aptavit.

19 movement (of work of classical music)  ► mômentum, i n.

19 note  (in musical notation)  nota mûsica (QUINT. 1, 12, 14)

19 piece (of music)

19 play (a musical instrument)  ► (instrumento) sonare (v. canere v. cantare)  ► (instrumento) modulari  ¶ Ov. M. 11, 154: "Leve ceratâ modulataur harundine carmen."  ►(instrumentum) pulsare (of percussion or string instrument)  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 367: "Tunc inceperunt pulsari multa instrumenta."

19 trill  vocem crispare (1540 VIVES Exer. 328)

19 tune  vb.

19 types: classical music

19 types: Gregorian chant  cantus Gregoriânus (DUCANGE s.v. cantus ecclesiasticus: "inde cantus ecclesiasticus, a Gregoria renovatus et in meliorem redactus ordinem, passim 'Gregorianus' appellatus est," quoting several medieval authors for the expression)

19 works: concerto  concentus concertatus (Andreas Rauch, Missa, vespera et alii sacri concentus concertati, duabus vocibus vivis, adhibito clavicymbalo, chely et fidibus majoribus, decantandi, Nürnberg 1641)

19 works: étude

19 works: impromptu

19 works: minuet

19 works: motet

19 works: nocturne

19 works: opera  ► fabula melica  ► drâma mûsicum  ¶  F. H. Bothe, ed., Aristophanes, Ranae (Leipzig, 1828), 28, in annotation: "quem ad modum servus vetulus in dramate musico Mozartii inscripto Die Entführung aus dem Serail," etc.  EGGER S.L. 39.  EGGER L.D.I. 109.  ► drâma melicum  ►► Melodrama (EGGER R.A. 50) perperam confictum videtur.  Quo modo distinguendum musical (e.g. Broadway musical) et opera?

19 works: rhapsody

19 works: scherzo

19 works: sonata

19 works: suite

19 works: symphony

19 works: tone poem

192

192    SING

192 a cappella, without instrumental accompaniment  assâ voce (VARR. in Non. 77)

192 choirboy  ► puer chorista+  ¶ Ducange: "MAGISTER SCHOLARUM DE CANTU, Choristarum puerorum praepositus."  ► puer symphôniacus  ¶ CIC. Mil. 21, 55.  |  boys' choir  ¶pueri symphôniaci (m. pl.)

192 chorus  canentium chorus (EGGER D.L. 15; EGGER S.L. 99)

192 chorus: choir  (group of singers)  (sacer) canentium chorus;  (section of church)  chorus, i (GOELZER citing ISID.)

192 folk-singer  ► Cf. citharoedus, i m. (one who sings while playing guitar or similar instrument)  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 13, of entertainment at Kublai Khan's court: "Terminato prandio surgunt citharoedi omnes et suaves faciunt melodias."

192 lip-sync

194

194    ORCHESTRA

194 bell  ► campâna, ae f.  ¶ DIG. 41, 1, 12.  1784 DUCRUE 218.  ► campânula, ae+ f.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 43, in a description of Burmese pagodas with canopies of tinkling bells: "Super cacumine vero turris erant multae campaunlae aereae quae a vento flante redderent sonitum."  ► campânella, ae+ f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 409 (in a passage parallel to the preceding one): "Turris est tota de lapidibus ... et desuper est rotunda, et illa rotunditas est plena campanellis de auro, et quotiens ventus percutit illas campanellis facit eas pulsari."  ► nôla, ae f.  ¶ Souter citing Avian.  DUCANGE.  LATHAM.  NIERMEYER.  ► cloc(c)a, ae+ f.  ¶ DUCANGE.  LATHAM.  NIERMEYER.  ► tintinnâbulum, i n. (small bell, as door-bell or cowbell)  ► sonâculum, i+ n. (esp. of a jingle-bell, a small, spherical bell containing a jingling piece of metal)  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 23, of Kublai Khan's post runners: "Quilibet habet cinctorium grossis bullis, id est sonaliis sonantibus, circumquaque repletum, quas bullas sonacula vel sonalia dicimus."  ► sonâlium, i+ n. (variant of preceding) \ Ducange, defining as "tintinnabulum orbiculare."  1315 MARCO POLO B2, 23, quoted above.   ►► aes sonans (LRL; cf. MART. 14, 163: "tintinabulum: redde pilam; sonat aes thermarum." aes, aeris n. (EGGER R.A. 23: "turris cuius aes tinnit perraro."  aes sacrum (of church bell) (EGGER R.A. 128: "dum sacra aera omnium concinunt Urbis ecclesiarum").

194 bell: ring a bell  ► tintinnabulum pulsare  ¶ JUV. 6, 441.  ► campânam pulsare  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 218.

194 brass: French horn  cornu, ûs n.

194 brass: saxophone  saxophônum, i* n.

194 brass: trombone  tuba diductilis

194 brass: trumpet  tuba, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 49)

194 brass: tuba  tuba gravisona (v. barytona)

194 guitar  ► cithara (Hispanica)  ¶ Cf. Erasmus Epist. IV. 19, probably referring to the Renaissance cithern, closely related to the guitar: "Effecit ut mulier iam ad senium vergens ... citharâ, testudine, monochordo, tibiisque canere disceret."

194 guitar: banjo  ► cithara Americâna

194 guitar: lute  ► lautus, i+ m.  ¶ LATHAM.  Ducange, quoting a criminal statute: "Nulla persona audeat ire per civitatem Cumanam ... cum violâ nec lauto nec aliquo instrumento sonandi."  ►leutum, i+ n.  ¶ Petrarch in his will, quoted by Ducange s.v. laudis: "Thomae Bombasiae de Ferraria lego leutum meum bonum, non ut eum sonet pro vanitate saeculi fugacis, sed ad laudem Die aeterni."  ► lutina, ae f.  ¶ LLN.  ► lutinum, i n.  ¶ LLN.  ► testûdo, inis (*) f.  ¶ In antiquity, any arch-shaped string instrument.  Since the Renaissance, with specific reference to the lute: Erasmus Epist. IV. 19: "Effecit ut mulier iam ad senium vergens ... citharâ, testudine, monochordo, tibiisque canere disceret."  1540 VIVES Exer. 384: "Cape testudinem hanc et aliquid nobis cantilla."  Ducange s.v. lautus in definition.

194 guitar: play the guitar (or similar instrument)  ► citharâ canere (v. cantare v. sonare)  ► citharoedare  ¶ Souter citing Fulg.  ► citharizare+  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 28: "Doctae erant saltare, citharizare, et canere in omni genere musicorum."

194 guitar: sitar  ► cithara Indica

194 guitar: ukulele  ► cithara Havaiâna

194 key (of musical instrument)  ► pinn(ul)a tactilis  ► pinna, ae f.  ¶ Vitr. 10, 8, 4: of keys of a water-organ: "Haec regulae habent ferrea choragia fixa et iuncta cum pinnis, quarum pinnarum tactûs motiones efficit regularum continenter."  Idem 10, 8, 6: "Itaque cum pinnae manibus tactae propellunt et reducunt continenter regulas, alternis obturando foramina, alternis aperiundo, e musicis artibus multiplicibus modulorum varietatibus sonantes excitant voces."  \ Cf. Callebat 256, on Vitrivius' use of the word in this sense: "PINNA ... At 10, 8, 4 and 10, 8 6, it designates the keys of an intrument."  Idem 264: "PINNA: Key ... part of the water-organ." \  ► palmula, ae (*) f.

194 key (of musical instrument): plectrum or quill (of harpsichord), tangent (of clavichord), hammer (of piano), plectrum or pick (of guitar, banjo, etc.)  ►plectrum, i n.  ¶ SCALIGER Poetices 1, 48, quoted at length below.  ► malle(ol)us, i m. (of hammers of piano)  ¶ Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 427, using malleus of a mallet for striking a sort of wooden gong.  ►► Scaliger, Poetices 1, 48: "Aristoteles trigoni psalterii meminit, cuius chordae essent aeque intentae omnes.  Epigonus autem ... construxit instrumentum in quo essent chordae quadraginta, quod epigoneum ab se appellavit.  Ab hoc quidem scribunt omissum plectri usum, non a Demopoeeto, sicuti dicebamus.  Fuit et Simi commentum illud, quod ab eo simicum appellatum quinque et triginta constabat chordis; a quibus eorum origo quos nunc monochordos vulgus vocat, in quibus ordine digesta plectra subsilientia reddunt sonos.  Additae deinde plectris corvinarum pennarum cuspides; ex aereis filis expressiorem eliciunt harmoniam.  Me puero clavicymbalum et harpichordum, nunc ab illis mucronibus spinetam nominant.  Vetus monochordos unico nervo contentus erat: Arabum inventum.  Trichordos autem Assyriorum, quod panduran appellabant.  Pentachordos Scytharum fuit; ex cruda pelle bubula confectas chordas pulsabant plectro, quod ex ungula caprina optimum habebatur.  Durat etiam nunc plectri usus in Hispania, et psalterii, cuius sonum miscent cum sono tibiae, loco tympani; quod idcirco tympanum chordatum vocant; Itali me puero tabasium."  In this summary by Scaliger of the evolution of keyboard instruments (a key passage for historians in the field), "plectrum" refers not to the key of a keyboard instrument, but to (1) a hand-held pick or plectrum, used for playing non-keyed string instruments, such as the psaltery or guitar, and (2) the quill or plectrum (in a harpsichord) or tangent (in a clavichord) that actually strikes the string inside a keyboard instrument (or perhaps the jack and plectrum taken as one – a meaning suggested by the expression "ordine digesta plectra subsilientia").  The "corvinarum pennarum cuspides" (later in the passage called "mucrones") are the quills of the harpsichord (they were in fact crow quills in Scaliger's time).  The "monochordos" (in the phrase "quos nunc monochordos vulgus vocat") appears to be here, as often, a term for the clavichord or a similar instrument.  This non-etymological application of the term to multi-stringed instruments is mentioned in the OED (s.v. monochord, sense 2.a.); Erasmus uses the Latin word in the same way in referring to an instrument Thomas More had his wife learn to play: "Effecit ut mulier iam ad senium vergens ... citharâ, testudine, monochordo, tibiisque canere disceret" (Epist. 4, 19).

194 keyboard (of musical instrument)  ► abacus, i m.  ► abacus claviarius  ¶ Kircher  ► claviarium, i n. /

194 keyboard: clavichord  piano  ► clavichordium, i+ n.  ¶ LLN.  ► clavichordium+ pristinum (v. mensâle v. epitrapezium)

194 keyboard: harpsichord  ► clavicymbalum, i+ n.  ¶ LLN.  DUCANGE.  SCALIGER Poetices 1, 48, quoted at length under plectrum.  ► harpichordum, i+ n.  ¶ SCALIGER Poetices 1, 48.

194 keyboard: pianist  ► clavichordista, ae* m.  ►► plectrocymbalista* (EGGER S.L. 34)

194 keyboard: piano  ► clavichordium, i+ n.  ¶ Desiderius Démeny, Ave Maria, pro voce ab acuta altera vel gravi sola, organo vel clavichordio iuncto (Budapest 1922).  [see also, in C-drive google.books file, Weber De Pulsu, Voetius]  ►► plectrocymbalum* (EGGER S.L. 33).  polychordium lenius idem et acrius (Riddle s.v. piano-forte).

194 organ  (musical instrument)  organum, i n. (SUET.; AUG.; Cass.)  ► ? organum mûsicum (EGGER R.A. 61)

194 organist  organista, ae+ m. (DANTE Vulg. El. 345; LATHAM; NIERMEYER)

194 organ-maker  organopoeus, i* m.

194 percussion: cymbal  acitabulum, i n. (DUCANGE)

194 percussion: drum  tympanum, i n.

194 percussion: drum: drumstick

194 percussion: drum: kettle drum, tympani

194 percussion: rattle (toy, instrument)  ► crepitâculum, i n.  ¶ Quint.  Mart.

194 string (of musical instrument)  nervus, i m.

194 strings: bow (of string instrument)  ► plectrum, i n.

194 strings1: violin  ► violînum, i* n.  ¶ Evan Evans, Dissertatio de Bardis (London, 1764), quoted in Report of the Committee ... Appointed to Inquire into the Nature and Authenticity of the Poems of Ossian (Edinburg, 1805), 268, in description of a Welsh folk instrument: "Hoc instrumenti genus fere in desuetudinem abiit, et violino cessit; sex chordis felinis constat, nec eodem modo quo violinum modulatur."   ► violîna, ae* f., fidicula, ae (*) f. (cf. fidicula violina, EGGER D.L. 45; cf. minoris modi fides, Noël)  ► chelys, yis (*) f.  ►► WC title: Andreas Rauch, Missa, vespera et alii sacri concentus concertati, duabus vocibus vivis, adhibito clavicymbalo, chely et fidibus majoribus, decantandi (Nürnberg, 1641).

194 strings1: violinist  fidicen, inis m. (Noël)

194 strings2: viola  ► viôla, ae* f.  ¶ Ducange, of a medieval viol, quoting a criminal statute: "Nulla persona audeat ire per civitatem Cumanam ... cum violâ nec lauto nec aliquo instrumento sonandi."

194 strings3: cello  viôloncellum, i* n., fides crurales, fides maiores  ►► WC title: Andreas Rauch, Missa, vespera et alii sacri concentus concertati, duabus vocibus vivis, adhibito clavicymbalo, chely et fidibus majoribus, decantandi (Nürnberg, 1641).

194 strings4: double-bass  contrabassus, i* m., fides statâria

194 winds: reed (of wind instrument)  li(n)gula, ae f. (PLIN. 16, 171)

194 winds1: flute  tibia oblîqua

194 winds2: recorder  (musical instrument)  tibia recta (v. pristina)

194 winds3: clarinet  clarinêta, ae* f., tibia unicalama 

194 winds4: oboe  tibia Gallica (cf. LRL: tibia altisona Gallica)  ► tibia bicalama* (for the formation of bicalamaus, cf. the ancient unicalamus)  ||  EB s.v. oboe: "Hautbois (French: 'high [i.e., loud] wood')  ► or oboe, was originally one of the names of the shawm, the violently powerful instrument of outdoor ceremonial.  The oboe proper (i.e., the orchestral instrument)  ► however, was the mid-17th-century invention of two French court musicians."  EB s.v. bassoon: "The development of the bassoon, which is the bass voice of the woodwinds, is believed to have closely followed the reconstitution of the shawm as an oboe."

194 winds5: bassoon  fagottum, i* n., tibia gravisona (v. barytona)

194 winds6: piccolo  tibia oxyphôna*

194 winds7: fife  tibia militâris (v. campestris)

194 winds8: whistle  (device)  ? fistella, ae f.  ►► cf. fistula sibilatrix, MART. Cap. 9, 906

20

20    BODY

20 abdomen  abdomen, inis n., venter, tris m.

20 actions: count on one's fingers  in digitos supputare (ERASMUS Coll. 159-60)

20 actions: cross one's fingers  digitos decussare

20 actions: cross-legged  crûribus decussâtis (v. complicâatis)  |  sit cross-legged  crûra decussâtim complicare, crûribus decussâtis (v. complicâtis) sedêre

20 actions: hold one's breath  animam continere (CIC. de Or. 1, 61, 261 et passim)

20 actions: hold one's nose  nares comprimere (1784 DUCRUE 251)

20 actions: pick one's nose  nares fodere

20 actions: posture  \\ status, ûs m.  \ PLAUT. Pseud. 458: "Statum vide hominis, Callipho, quasi basilicum."  \ CIC. Or. 59, on the motions and posture of the ideal orator: "Motu sic utetur nihil ut supersit; in gestu, status erectus et celsus."  \ QUINT. 1, 11, 16, on the sort of physical training that produces good posture and decorous gestures: "Sed nomen est idem [scil. palaestricus] iis a quibus gestûs motûsque formantur, ut recta sint bracchia, ne indoctae rusticae manûs, ne status indecorus, ne qua in proferendis pedibus inscitia."

20 actions: shake hands  dextras iungere

20 actions: shift one's weight from one leg to another  alternis tibiis vacillare (ERASMUS Coll. 161)

20 actions: smile  (be smiling)  ridêre, arridêre, subridêre, renidêre;  (begin to smile, break into a smile)  frontem exporrigere (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 379: "quid sibi vult contractio istaec frontis? exporrigite istos vulticulos")

20 actions: snap one's fingers  digitis crepare, digitis concrepare (PLAUT. Mil. 206)  |  a snap of the fingers, a finger-snap  digitorum crepitus (1540 VIVES Exer. 388)

20 actions: stand on tip-toe  in digitos erigi (QUINT. 2, 3, 8)

20 actions: stand up straight  se in rectum corporis statum componere (ERASMUS Coll. 161; cf. QUINT. 11, 3, 159: "status rectus sit."

20 actions: stop up one's ears, plug one's ears  aures obturare

20 actions: stretch  v.i.  (as on waking, or before exercising)  pandiculari (PLAUT.)  ► nervos distendere (ERASMUS Coll. 158, of a late-rising servant: "dum distendit nervos, dum oscitat, tota abit hora")

20 actions: stub one's foot or toe, stump one's foot or toe  pedem (v. pollicem) (ostio v. parieti v. rei alteri) offendere (v. incutere) (PLIN. 7, 181: "[obiit] Lepidus iam egrediens incusso pollice limini cubiculi")

20 actions: thumbs-down: give someone the thumbs-down  pollicem (con)vertere  ►► inspiciendi loci a LS citati

20 actions: wipe one's nose  emungi (VARR.; JUV.)  ► nares emungere (1540 VIVES Exer. 285)

20 alimentary canal  canalis alimentarius (1811 PALLAS 12)

20 appendectomy  appendicis coli excisio

20 appendicitis  appendicîtis, idis f. (HELFER citing 19th c. source)  ►► appendicis colicae inflammatio (LRL)

20 appendix  appendix coli (Lev.)  ► appendix vermiformis* (see OED s.v. appendix)  ►► appendix colica (LRL)

20 arterial  artêriacus, a, um

20 birthmark  ► nota genetîva  ¶ Suet. Aug. 80: "Corpore traditur maculoso, dispersis per pectus atque alvum genetivis notis in modum et ordinem ac numerum stellarum caelestis ursae."

20 birthmark  nota genetiva (SUET. AUG. 80)

20 bladder  vêsîca, ae f. (Cic.; Plin.)  ► vêsîca ûrînâria* 1843 TRAPPEN 106)

20 blood flow  sanguinis cursus (EGGER S.L. 32)

20 blood plasma  plasma sanguinis (v. sanguineum)  ►► Mod. Gr. πλάσμα

20 blood vessel  ► vas sanguiferum*  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 118)  ► vasculum sanguiferum*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 12: "Carnosam gingivae partem, quae cutis est, infinita vasculorum sanguiferorum copia interpungit, de quâ vel ipse intense rubicundus color testaur."  1752 STUMPF 24: "propter infinitam exilissimorum vasculorum sanguiferorum copiam."  ► vâs, vâsis (*) n.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI487: "vasorum infarctûs" ("blockages of blood vessels").  1752 STUMPF 10: "Per peculiare foramen in singulis radicum apicibus vasa nervulusque introeunt 1846 GROSSE 23: "systema vasorum." ► vasculum, i (*) n.  ¶ Bonon. Acad. I, 310: "Sanguinis circulum per tenuissima peripheriae vascula ... peragi."  1752 STUMPF 11: "vasculorum nervorumque surculos."

20 blood vessel: artery  ► artêria, ae f.  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.  ► vas artêriôsum*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 10  ► vasculum artêriôsum*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 24: "vascula illa minima arteriosa, quae se dentium radicibus insinuant."

20 blood vessel: artery: carotid artery  ► carôtis, idis* f.  ¶ Anc. Gr.  1752 STUMPF 10: "superius ab anteriore carotidis externae surculo."  ► artêria carôtis  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 42: "vasculos ex arteriis carotidibus et venis iugularibus ... ad dentes deduci."

20 blood vessel: capillary

20 blood vessel: vein  ► vêna, ae f.  ¶  ► vas vênôsum  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 10

20 blood vessel: vein: jugular vein  ► vêna iugulâris*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 11: "vasa ... ad internae iugularis venae surculos deducta."

20 blood: antibody  antisôma, atis* n. (Mod. Gr. αντίσωμα) 

20 blood: circulation of the blood  ► sanguinis circulâtio  ►  circulatio, ônis f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 82.  Ibid. 135: "ex vitâ sedentariâ indeque vitiatâ circulatione."  ► sanguinis periodus |  speed up the circulation  ► circulationem accelerare  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 82.

20 blood: circulatory system, cardiovascular system  vasorum systema (1846 GROSSE 23: "systema vasorum cannabis usu excitatur")

20 blood: hemoglobin  haemoglobina, ae* f., haemosphaerina, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. αιμοσφαιρίνη)

20 blood: platelet, thrombocyte  haemopetalium, i* m., thrombocytus, i* m.  ►► Mod. Gr.  αιμοπετάλια , θρομβοκύτταρο

20 blood: red blood cell, erythrocyte  haemosphaerium* rubrum, erythrocytus, i* m.  ►► Mod. Gr.  ερυθρά αιμοσφαίριαερυθροκύτταρο

20 blood: white blood cell, leukocyte  haemosphaerium* album, leucoocytus, i* m.  ►► Mod. Gr.  λευκά αιμοσφαίριαλευκοκύτταρο 

20 bone (vb.), debone, fillet (vb.), filet (vb.)  \\ exdorsuare (a fish)  \ Plaut. Aul. 399: "Murenam exdorsua quantum potest."

20 bump (on surface of body), protuberance, tubercle  ► tuberculum, i n.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 13: "Initio morbi tubercula plerumque sese ostenderunt in vaccarum uberibus et papillis globata, haud valde dolentia, magnitudine nucis avellanae, durissima et sub cute mobilia."

20 cardiovacular  cordivascularis, e, cardiangîacus, a, um* (Mod. Gr. καρδιαγγειακός)

20 cartilage, gristle  ► cartilâgo, inis f.  ¶ Cels.  Plin.

20 dimple  ► gelasînus, i m.  ¶ Mart. 7, 25, 6: "Nec grata est facies cui gelasinus abest."  \ 1752 STUMPF 41: "Quorum [scil. dentium] candor cum praesertim subridendo manifestetur, gelasini inde dicti sunt; a quorum absentiâ ingratam iudicat faciem leporum facetissimus magister Martialis."  \\ laculla, ae f.  \ Cf. Apul. Flor. 15, describing a statue of Bathyllus, a famous dancer: "Adulescens est visendâ pulchritudine ... malae uberes, genae teretes, at medio mento lacullatur" ("he has a dimple in the middle of his chin").

20 duct (channel within the body)  ► ductus, ûs m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 38: "per ductûs lacteos chyliferosque."

20 ear wax  sordes aurium

20 ear-doctor  medicus auricularius (DIG. 50, 13, 1)

20 epigastric  epigastrius, a, um* (1846 GROSSE 17: "in regione epigastriâ")

20 eye: bloodshot eyes  ► sanguis oculis suffusus  ¶ PLIN. 20, 142: "Radix rutae sanguinem oculis suffusum ... inlita emendat."  ► oculi sanguine opplêti  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 14.  ►oculorum suffûsio  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 42.  ► opplêtio vasorum oculi  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 8, of effects of cannabis use. 

20 eye: cornea  tunica cornea

20 eye: optic nerve  nervus opticus (Bonon. Acad. I, 304)

20 eye: pupil (of eye)  pûpula, ae f. (CIC.; HOR.; Ov.)  |  dilated pupils  pupillae dilatatae erant (1846 GROSSE 11)  |  constricted pupils  pupillae coartâtae (1846 GROSSE 25)

20 eye: retina  retina, ae+ f. (LATHAM citing 13th c. source; BADELLINO)  ► têla retina (LATHAM citing 13th c. source)  ► retina nervosa (1811 PALLAS 14)  ► retiolum oculi (GOELZER) ►► Mod. Gr.  αμφιβληστροειδης  (χιτώνας)

20 eye: stye (inflammation on edge of eyelid)  ► hordeolus, i n. ¶ MarcEmp.  ISID.

20 eye: stye: chalazion, cyst on the eyelid  ► chalazia, ae* f. ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 122.  ► grandino palpebrae ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 122: "chalaziam sive grandinem palpebrae discussam se vidisse."

20 eyebrow  supercilium, i n.

20 eyelash  palpêbrae pilus (CELS. 6, 6, 15; cf. CIC. N.D. 2, 143: "munitaeque sunt palpebrae tamquam vallo pilorum."  ►► For the sake of clarity, cilium is best avoided for "eyelash," as its classical meaning is "eyelid"; cilium for "eyelash" is not attested before the 4th century (see AndréAnatomie 47).

20 eyelid  palpêbra, ae f. (CIC.; CELS.)  ►► The ordinary meaning of palpêbra is "eyelid"; its use for "eyelash" is rare (see AndréAnatomie 46).

20 finger: give (someone) the finger, flick or flip (someone) off  ► (alicui) medium unguem ostendere  \ JUV. 10, 53: "cum Fortunae ipse minaci mandaret laqueum mediumque ostenderet unguem."  \ ERASMUS.  ► (alicui) digitum impudîcum ostendere  \ MART. 6, 70, 5.

20 finger2: index finger, forefinger  digitus index (CELS. 7, 19, 2; HOR. Sat. 2, 8, 26; 1540 VIVES Exer. 394)  ► digitus salûtâris (SUET. AUG. 80, 3)

20 finger3: middle finger, third finger  digitus medius (CELS. 2, 10, 13; MART. 2, 28, 2)  ► digitus impudîcus (MART. 6, 70, 5)  ► digitus infâmis (Pers. 2, 33; 1540 VIVES Exer. 394)

20 finger4: ring finger, fourth finger  digitus ânulâris (ISID. Etym. 11, 1, 70; 1540 VIVES Exer. 394)  ► digitus medicus (PLIN. 30, 108; ISID. Etym. 2, 63)  ► digitus minimo proximus (PLIN. 11, 251; Gell. 10, 10, 1; 1540 VIVES Exer. 394)

20 finger5: little finger, pinky  digitus minimus (PLIN. 11, 251; 1540 VIVES Exer. 394; cf. PLAUT. Rud. 3, 4, 15: minimus digitulus)

20 foot: arch of the foot  vola, ae f. (PLIN. 11, 254: "vola homini tantum," "only man has an arched foot."  ► vola pedis, plantae cavum (CaelAur. Chron. 3, 66)

20 freckle  lenticula, ae f. (CELS.; PLIN.)  ► lentîgo, inis f. (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 152: "lentigines in facie emendant")

20 genitals, genitalia  ► genitâlia, um n. pl.  ¶ PLIN.  QUINT.  JUV.   ► nâtûra, ae f.  ¶ CIC.  VARR.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 452, in a description of a region of southern India: "Vadunt omnes nudi, salvo quod cooperiunt sibi naturam cum modico panno; et sic vadit rex sicut alii, salvo quod rex ... portat ad naturam pulchriorem pannum quam aliquis alius."  Ibid. 471, of the inhabitants of Zanzibar: "Vadunt omnes nudi, sed cooperiunt suam naturam, et faciunt magnum sensum quando eam cooperiunt, eo quod habent eam multum magnam et turpem, et horribilem ad videndum."  ► pudenda, orum n. pl.  ¶ Aus.  AUG.  Vulg.  ► verêcunda, orum (+) n. pl.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 22 (in a passage parallel to the one quoted above for natura): "Omnes nudi ambulant mares et feminae, sed quilibet verecunda operit panno uno."  ► verenda, orum (+) n. pl.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 31: "Nudi omnes ambulant mares et feminae ... Verenda tamen pulchro panno tegunt."

20 genitals: circumcised  recutîtus, a, um (PETR.; MART. ) 

20 genitals: clitoris  \\ clîtoris, idis f.  \ Anc. Gr.  \\ landîca, ae f. (obscene in classical Latin)  \ Cael. Aur. Gyn. 2, 112: "Quibusdam landicis horrida comitatur magnitudo, et feminas partium foeditate confundit, et, ut plerique memorant, ipsae, affectae tentigine, virorum similem appetentiam sumunt et in venerem coactae veniunt."  \\ tentîgo, inis (+) f.  \ Latin trans. of Albucasis, mentioned by Duval 68.

20 genitals: female circumcision, clitorectomy  clîtoridis* excisio

20 genitals: foreskin  \\ praepûtium, i n.

20 genitals: penis  \\ membrum vîrîle  ► pênis, is m.  ► verêtrum, i n.  \ Suet.  \ Phaedr.  \\ mentula, ae f. (obcene in classical usage)  \ Cat.  \ Mart.  ► priâpus, i (*) m.  \ Falloppius 149: "licet vino, lotio vel aquâ detergamus priapum."

20 genitals: penis: phallus  \\ fascinum, i n.  \ Hor.  \ Petr.  \\ Priâpi simulâcrum  \ 1652 TURS. 23: "foedissimo Priapi simulacro ad Cedronem torrentum exusto."  \ Cf. Vulg. 1 Reg. 15, 13.

20 genitals: pubic hair  pûbês, is f. (PLIN.; CELS.)  ► pecten, inis m. (region covered by pubic hair, pubic region) (PLIN.; JUV.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 395)

20 genitals: uncircumcised  praepûtiâtus, a, um (TERT.)

20 gland  ► glandula, ae (*) f.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 13.  \ 1771 WAY 10-11: "vis glandulas salivales stimulandi."

20 hand: hollow of the hand  vola, ae f. (Fest. 551, 3; 1540 VIVES Exer. 395: "quae est vola?  – cavum manûs")

20 hand: left-handed  sinistrâ manu agiliore (abl.) (SUET. Tib. 68: "corpore fuit amplo atque robusto ... sinistrâ manu agiliore ac validiore"; Paulus Wulffius, Quaedam de viscerum inversione laterali, Dorpati Livonorum, 1855, p. 17: "puella optimâ valetudine gaudebat, neque manu sinistrâ agiliore ac validiore erat."  ► sinistrâ manu agilior, sinistrâ manu promptiore (abl.) (GOELZERciting Livy; Wulffius, op. cit., p. 18: "in tribus his casibus curvaturae columnae vertebralis convexitas sinistrorsum conveersa fuisse perhibetur, nullo tamen hominum lioorum ... manu sinistrâ promptiore quam dexterâ."  ► sinistrâ manu promptior (BADELLINO)  ► qui sinistrâ validius utitur (DIG. 21.1.12.3)  ► qui sinistrâ manu utitur pro dextrâ (SCHELLER)  |  a left-handed man  scaeva, ae m. (SEN. Rh. Contr. 3, 10: "quidam sic cum scaevâ componi cupiunt, quomodo alii timent"; DIG. 21.1.12.3: "sciendum est scaevam non esse morbosum vel vitiosum, praeterquam si inbecillitate dextrae validius sinistrâ utitur: sed hunc non scaevam, sed mancum esse."  ►► Noël: qui laevâ vulgo utitur.  Cf.  αριστεροχειρ  (Anc. Gr.).

20 hand: left-handed: ambidextrous  ambidexter, tra, trum (Itala Jud. 3, 15; Cassian Coll. 6, 10, in P.L. vol.  p. 659: "recte ambidextri nuncupantur, utrâque enim manu utuntur pro dextrâ"; 1652 TURS. 12: "Eudus ambidexter"; Peter of Blois, Sermons, in P.L. vol. 207, pp. 760, 814: "legitur quod Aod, filius Gera, ambidexter, utrâque manu pugnabat, cuius expressam similitudinem Iob gert, quia non minus sinistrâ pugnabat quam dextrâ"; Luther, Sermons, in Werke [Weimar, 1886], IV. 547: "dux ambidexter Eglon"; Sir Thomas Browne, Works [ London, 1835], IV. 301: "Graecae Latinaeque linguae peritum Laurentium Asteropaeum sive ambidextrum dixit Athenaeus."  ► qui utrâque manu pro dexterâ utitur (Vulg. Jud. 3, 15: "Ahoth, filium Gera, filii Iemini, qui utrâque manu utebatur pro dexterâ")

20 hand: left-handed: right-handed  dexterâ manu agiliore (v. promptiore)  ► dexterâ manu agilior (v. promptior)  ► qui dexterâ validius utitur

20 hand: line on the palm of the hand (as the life line, important in palm-reading)  incîsûra, ae f. (PLIN. 11, 274; 1540 VIVES Exer. 395)

20 head: back of the head  occipitium, i n. (PLAUT.; SUET.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 392)

20 heart  (fig., as seat of emotions)  pectus, oris n.;  to have a heart of stone  ferrum in pectore gerere (OV. M. 9, 615)

20 heart  adj.  cardiacus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 80)

20 intestinal tract, gastrointestinal tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal  tractus intestinâlis (1846 GROSSE 24)

20 intestines  intestîna, orum n. pl. (CIC.; CELS.)  ► interânea, orum n. pl. (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 124)

20 intestines: large intestine: caecum  intestînum caecum (CELS. 4, 1, 8)

20 intestines: large intestine: colon  colon, i n. (PLIN.; Pallas12)  ►► The first o is short (OED: "The form  found in MSS. is metrically incorrect ... and arose from confusion with a limb or member"; Lidell-Scott s.v.  κωλον : "incorrect form for  κολον ").

20 intestines: large intestine: rectum  intestînum rectum (CELS. 4, 1, 9; 1811 PALLAS 60)

20 intestines: small intestine  intestînum tenuius (CELS. 4, 1, 8)

20 intestines: small intestine: duodenum

20 intestines: small intestine: ileum

20 intestines: small intestine: jejunum  intestînum ieiunum (CELS. 4, 1, 7)

20 jawbone  ► os maxillâre  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 10: "anatomê ipsorum dentium, et quibus comprehenduntur ossium maxillarium."

20 knuckle, finger-joint  nodus digiti, condylus, i m. (MART. Cap. 1, 88: "complicatis in condylos digitis"; C.G.L. 5, 617, 9: "condylus est nodus digitorum"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 395: "nodi digitorum sunt condyli, et pro pugni percussi vox ea usurpater," explaining the passage in MART. Cap.)

20 membrane (in living things)  ► membrâna, ae f.  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.  1752 STUMPF 12, of tissue membrane covering root of teeth.

20 nail clippings  \\ (unguium) praesegmina (pl.)  \ Plaut. Aul. 312-313, of a miser: "Quin ipsi pridem tonsor unguis dempserat; / collegit, omnia abstulit praesegmina."  \ Non. 151, 33: "'Praesegmina' proprie Plautus in Aululariâ ea dici voluit, quae unguibus eminulis praesecantur."  \ Apul. Met. 2, 20, on witches' wiles: "Ex bustis et rogis reliquiae quaedam et cadaverum praesegmina ad exitiabiles viventium fortunas petuntur." 

20 nail, fingernail, toenail  \\ unguis, i m.  \ Hor.  \ Ov.  \ Plin.  \\ unguiculus, i m.  \ Plaut.  \ Cic.  \ Sen.